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DISSEMINATION DOCUMENT GRANT 020 



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Grants 

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OFFICE OF LAW ENFORCES I f/f < "" GTON, D.C 




THE APCO PROJECT 

A NATIONAL TRAINING MANUAL AND PROCEDURAL GUIDE 

FOR : i : 

POLICE AND PUBLIC SAFETY RADIO COMMUNICATIONS PERSONNEL 







U. S. GOVERNMENT 



LEAA DISSEMINATION DOCUMENT 



THE APCO PROJECT-- 

A NATIONAL^TRAINING MANUAL AND 

PROCEDURAL GUIDE FOR POLICE AND PUBLIC 

SAFETY RADIO COMMUNICATIONS PERSONNEL 



Final Report submitted to 

Office of Law Enforcement Assistance 

United States Department of Justice 



This project was supported by Grant #020 awarded by the Attorney 
General under the Law Enforcement Assistance Act of 1965 to the 
Associated Public-Safety Communications Officers, Inc, Persons 
-^undertaking such projects under Government sponsorship are en- 
couraged to express freely their professional judgement, findings, 
and conclusions. Therefore, points of view or opinions stated in 
this document do not necessarily represent the official position 
or policy of the U.S. Department of Justice. 



CARNEGIE 



LDBBABT CT PITTSBURGH 



PREFACE 

The Project in Perspective 

Among the many training projects supported under the Law Enforcement 
Assistance Act of 1965, several have sought as their main objective to 
develop or make available manuals, handbooks, films, and other curriculum 
materials for law enforcement and criminal justice personnel.* In other 
projects, such educational guides have been a secondary or collateral 
product of the training effort.** 

A prime example of LEAA assistance offered solely for developing 
and disseminating a needed training tool was the Department's Grant 
No. 020 awarded in April of 1966 to the Associated Public-Safety 
Communications Officers, Inc. (APCO) national professional association 
of police and public safety radio connnuni cat ions officers. This grant 
was designed to permit completion, publication, and national dissemina- 
tion to all law enforcement agencies of significant size (i.e., serving 
populations of 5,000 or more) of a manual of standard operating pro- 
cedures and guides for police and public safety radio systems. 



* Examples are LEAA Grants No. 081 to the League of Kansas Munici- 
palities (handbook for all Kansas law enforcement officers), No. 026 
to the University of Pennsylvania Law School (police manuals e 
legal and constitutional requirements of police work), No. 204 to 
the New York State Police (instructional handbook for police on new 
penal code and model operational procedures), No. 67-26 to the Federal 
Bureau of Investigation (reproduction and national distribution of FBI 
riot control manual), No. 086 to the American Trial Lawyers Foundation 
(training films on criminal law advocacy). 

** Examples are LEAA Grants No. 031 (development of state search and 
seizure manuals in conjunction with prosecutor training workshops) 
and No. 241 to Southern Illinois University (development of lesson 
plans and curriculum tools in conjunction with correctional training 
officer institutes). 



The APCO manual, end product of Grant 020, constitutes the body of 
this dissemination document. It is unaccompanied by a separate project 
report because the manual is, in effect, the grantee's final report. 
Pages 7-11 of the manual provide some measure of project history, 
organization, and purpose. As special appendices, material has been 
included to (i) show how the grantee has sought to follow up and build 
upon the manual's guidance through monthly training bulletins in its 
professional journal, and (ii) illustrate other handbook efforts which 
have received LEAA grant support. 
The APCO Manual 

The critical importance of radio communications to the effective 
functioning of police and other public safety agencies places great 
responsibility upon communications operators. Coping with crowded 
frequencies and modest- -perhaps minimum equipment, operators must 
work at optimum effectiveness. It is imperative that they utilize 
existing facilities -efficiently and that they follow highly refined, 
standardized procedures. 

To assist in achieving these objectives, APCO developed the operators 1 
manual which is reproduced in the following pages. Under the Law 
Enforcement Assistance Act (LEAA) grant, APCO published and distributed 
the manual to 12,000 police and public safety agencies during early 
1967. The' LEAA grant not only supported preparation and publishing 
costs of the manual and consultation on its preparation by national 
experts, but also enabled the 12,000 agencies to receive it without 



ii 



cost. With this original publication and distribution achieved, and 
its LEM- funded commitments completed, APCO then provided and continues 
to provide additional copies at net cost ($1.00 per copy). 

As an indication of the manual ! s reception by law enforcement, fire- 
fighting, forest conservation and other public safety agencies, APCO ! s 
second printing of 3,000 copies was exhausted within two months and, 
at this writing, distribution of the third printing is well under way. 
The manual's value and contribution are not hard to perceive. Perhaps 
of prime importance is the fact that few government entities have been 
able to provide public safety radio operators with suitable training. 
The manual helps to fill this void by serving both as a self-teaching 
device and as a classroom aid for those agencies which do provide 
training. The manual, moreover, is designed for the working operator 
--this notwithstanding the difficulties in prescribing procedures to 
cover the special requirements of every public safety department. 
As stated in the foreword: 

This manual does not list absolute and mandatory rules, 
neither does it necessarily cover everything an operator 
should know. It is intended rather as a basic guide for 
all forms of public safety communications, especially for 
those departments that are unable to provide training pro- 
grams for their own operators. It may be useful as a sup- 
plement for those agencies who employ their own manuals. 

This manual was written by nationally recognized professionals 
in their fields. The procedures they recommend are based on 
experience and are drawn from those used by many public safety 
agencies. The difficulties in establishing hard and fast pro- 
cedures to cover the special requirements of every public 
safety department in the land are recognized. There is a 



iii 



need, however, for a universal influence and means which 
will serve to promote the use of standard basic operating 
procedures , and it is toward this end that APCO and the 
Office of Law Enforcement Assistance trust that their 
combined efforts will prove to be useful. 

Since the text of the manual is reproduced here for reference 
purposes only, it has been presented in a larger size and with a 
different binding than designed by the grantee. The actual manual 
is spiral bound and its size is a compact 5-1/2 x 8-1/2 inches for 
convenience of operating use. 

APCO's research and developmental work on this project began 
in 1964. Between 1964 and 1966, APCO's Operating Procedure Committee 
devoted extensive effort to preparing a manual that would meet national 
needs. Increasingly, APCO officials realized that completion of the 
work and proper initial distribution was beyond the organization's 
current resources, a determination which led to the application for 
LEAA financial support, a positive response in award of a $29,012 
grant and, ultimately, the successful conclusion of the manual effort. 

APCO's basic membership consists of state and local government 
agencies which have communications responsibilities. It is a non- 
profit organization with chapters in most areas of the nation. It 
participates regularly in rule-making proceedings before the Federal 
Communications Commission (FCC), works closely with the International 
Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP) and that organization's 
Communications Committee, and is generally active in matters relating 
to police and public safety radio communications. 



iv 



An unusually effective follow-up technique in the manual's 
dissemination and proper utilization has been devised by APCO through 
a new instructional section in the organization's monthly magazine, 
The APCO Bulletin (see Appendix A). This section, "From the Operatin; 
Viewpoint, 11 is based upon the manual and provides detailed explanatioi 
and discussion of various recommended procedures. When the Bulletin 
has fully completed its exposition of the manual in this fashion, 
APCO will have provided another valuable service to law enforcement 
communications personnel and have compiled a manual adjunct of partict 
lar usefulness in the training classroom. 



Office of Law Enforcement Assista 
February 1968 



CONTENTS 

Page 

Preface by Office of Law Enforcement Assistance i 

Text of Public Safety Communications Standard Operating 

Procedure Manual 1 

Appendix A- -From the Operating Point , Excerpt from The 
APCO Bulletin, February 1968 (Illustrates Grantee's 
Continuing Monthly Training Seminar on Manual Subjects) A-l 

Appendices B through F--Title Pages and Tables of Content 

of Other LEAA-Supported Training Guides and Manuals A-3 

Appendix B. Manual for Police, New York State Police A-5 

Appendix C. Handbook for Law Enforcement Officers, 

League of Kansas Municipalities A-9 

Appendix D. Prevention and Control of Mobs and Riots, 

Federal Bureau of Investigation A-13 

Appendix E. The Law of Arrest, Search and Seizure in 

Iowa, National District Attorneys Association A-21 

Appendix F. The Police Helicopter Patrol Team: Training 
Manual and Flight Syllabus, Los Angeles County Sheriff's 
Department A- 23 



vi 



PUBLIC SAFETY COMMUNICATIONS 



Standard 



OPERATING PROCEDURE MANUAL 



Associated Public-Safety Communications Officers, Inc., 1967 

First Edition 
February 1967 



A product of Project Two of the APCO Project Series Foundation; 
funded by the Office of Law Enforcement Assistance. 

Reproduction of this manual is prohibited unless by previous authori- 
zation of APCO, except, the items of Section 4 may be reproduced by 
tax-supported public safety entities for their own use only. For in- 
formation or additional copies contact Major J. Rhett McMillian, Jr.; 
Administrative Assistant; Associated Public-Safety Communications 
Officers, Inc.; Municipal Airport, P. O. Box 306, New Smyrna Beach, 
Florida, 32069; Telephone Number: 904/428-8700. 

Additional copies are available by request made on regular organi- 
zation printed purchase order form, or by prepaid cash or money order 
at $1.00 per copy, postpaid. 



1-2 



FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 

WASHINGTON, D.C. 20554 

February 2, 1967 

IN REPLY REFER TO: 

7000 

Associated Public Safety 
Communications Officers, Inc. 
2503 Allender Avenue 
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15220 

Gentlemen: 

A draft copy of a manual in process of preparation by your 
organization titled "Public Safety Communications Standard Operating 
Procedures" has been brought to my attention. I understand that the 
obviously extensive effort devoted to its preparation is made possible, 
in part, through a law enforcement agency assistance program admin- 
istered by the Department of Justice. 

The draft has been reviewed in detail by knowledgeable 
Commission staff and has received their enthusiastic approval. I 
further understand that they have made several suggestions which you 
have found constructive and helpful. 

As you know, the Commission is vitally concerned with 
achieving the most effective and efficient use of the frequencies 
allocated for the many uses of radio. This is particularly true in 
the vital law enforcement and other public safety fields in which 
radio is so important to the protection of life and property. 

An operating manual such as you have prepared is unquestionably 
beneficial and can contribute greatly to efficient use of radio facili- 
ties. I can speak unqualifiedly for the Commission in commending this 
highly worthwhile effort on your part. We are also pleased that our 
staff could be of some slight assistance in its preparation to the end 
that it is an accurate reflection of the Commission's rules and regula- 
tions. We will welcome the opportunity for such further similar 
assistance in the future as may be desirable because of revisions in 
rules and policies. 



Sincerely yours, 



cc: Mr. Joseph M. Kittner 
McKenna and Wilkinson 

1705 DeSales Street 
Washington, D. C. 20036 




Roael H. 
Chairman 



3-4 



INDEX 

FOREWORD 

PROJECT ORGANIZATION 

PURPOSE 

THE OPERATOR (Section 1) 

TELEPHONE TECHNIQUES (Section 2) 

RADIOTELEPHONE-VOICE-TECHNIQUES (Section 3) . , 

(A) Base Stations 

(B) Mobile Stations 

EXHIBITS (Section 4) 

Ten Signals 

Phonetic Alphabet 

2400 Hour Time 

Greenwich Time (ZULU) 

Personal Description (John Doe) 

Log Form 

Message Form #1 

Message Form #2 

Message Form #3 

Information Form 

Complaint and Administrative Forms 

THE FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 

__., . ., . (Sections). . 

What it is 

What it does 
Why it does it 
How it does it 
The "Don't" List 

LAW ENFORCEMENT COMMUNICATIONS (Section 6) 

(A) Radio 

Voice 

(B) Teletypewriter 

LETS 

CIVIL DEFENSE COMMUNICATIONS (Section 7) 

CONCLUSION 



GLOSSARY 

Abbreviations 
Definitions 




5-6 



FOREWORD 



The original public safety radio service was the Police Radio Service. 
The rapid development of the art soon brought about the establishment 
of additional public safety services: Fire, Forestry-Conservation, Spe- 
cial Emergency, Highway Maintenance and State Guard. The original 
police communications supervisors soon found the city fathers adding 
wider and more diverse communications responsibilities to their pri- 
mary functions until this trend was reversed by integration and co- 
ordination of departments by means of the establishment of the Local 
Government Radio Service. The police communications supervisor had 
thus become the communications supervisor for various functions at 
municipal, county and state levels and APCO, reflecting this consoli- 
dating though founded in 1935 as a police communications organiza- 
tion, became the Associated Public-Safety Communications Officers, 
Incorporated. 

APCO has historically published communications operating manuals 
and many of those procedures, including the famous TEN SIGNALS, 
have become standards. However, the present explosive demands of a 
mushrooming population with the accompanying problems caused by 
increasing numbers of highways, automobiles, crimes and related needs 
for public services have resulted in a rapidly expanding public safety 
radio service. 

APCO found its limited resources rapidly becoming inadequate to 
keep pace with the increasing demands for its communications services. 
The advent of the Law Enforcement Assistance Act provided a means 
for supplementing these efforts and in 1966 the Office of Law Enforce- 
ment Assistance awarded APCO Grant #020 for the purpose of pub- 
lishing this first public safety communications operating procedure 
manual of national scope and character. 

This manual does not list absolute and mandatory rules, neither 
does it necessarily cover everything an operator should know. It is in- 
tended rather as a basic guide for all forms of public safety communi- 
cations, especially for those departments that are unable to provide 
training programs for their own operators. It may be useful as a sup- 
plement for those agencies who employ their own manuals. 

This manual is specifically not an engineering text. It is concerned 
only with the operation of a system after the engineering and con- 
struction has been completed. Therefore, communications circuits, their 
capabilities and technical methods, are not treated since these designs 
are predicated upon local needs, policies, organization, etc. Neither is 
this manual concerned with FCC technical maintenance requirements. 

Because of the special needs of the Police radio service, which are 



peculiar to interagency and interstate communications, a separate sec- 
tion will be found on law enforcement procedure. 

As a condition of the OLE A Grant, 12,000 copies of this manual will 
be distributed free of charge to agencies throughout the nation by 
means of the APCO Chapters. It is anticipated that every state or- 
ganization, county sheriffs office and principal municipality (5,000 or 
more population) will be provided with at least one manual. Once 
this supply is exhausted additional printing of the manual will be ef- 
fected at APCO expense, but in such event, the price charged therefor 
will not exceed the total cost to APCO of printing, handling and dis- 
tribution of the additional copies plus a reasonable charge to recoup 
organizational overhead costs associated with the project. 

This manual was written by nationally recognized professionals in 
their fields. The procedures they recommend are based on experience 
and are drawn from those used by many public safety agencies. The 
difficulties in establishing hard and fast procedures to cover the special 
requirements of every public safety department in the land are recog^- 
nized. There is a need, however, for a universal influence and means 
which will serve to promote the use of standard basic operating pro- 
cedures, and it is toward this end that APCO and the Office of Law 
Enforcement Assistance trust that their combined efforts will prove 
to be useful. 

It is recognized that the communications art stands at the thres- 
hold of advanced computer techniques. The establishment of the Na- 
tional Crime Information Center is just one example of the changes 
that are being wrought in the communications field. It is likely that 
some of the procedures recommended in this manual will be subject to 
modification as experience with the new systems accumulates. The 
changes in procedure that may be dictated by these new techniques 
will be the products of time and experience. This manual fills a pre- 
sent need, will do its part in influencing proposed new methods, and 
future editions of this manual may be modified accordingly as uni- 
versal agreement may indicate. 



Project Director: 



PROJECT ORGANIZATION 

Major J. Rhett McMillian, Jr. President 
APCO 1965-66. Chief, Communications 
Division, Florida Game and Fresh Water 
Fish Commission, New Smyrna Beach 



Assistant Director: 



Captain Joseph T. Marshall, Communications 
Officer, Virginia State Police, Richmond, 
Past President, APCO; Chairman, IACP 
Communications Committee. 



Fiscal, Printing & 
Distribution : 



William M. Gamble, Superintendent of 

Bureau of Communications, Department of 

Public Safety, City of Pittsburgh, 

Pennsylvania. 

Secretary, Past President, APCO 



State Police 
Committee: 



Chairman: R. J. Evans, Communications 
Supervisor, Michigan State Police, 
East Lansing. 
Past President, APCO 

Capt. George Bundek, Communications Officer 
Delaware State Police, Dover 

I. Otto Rhoades, Superintendent of Operations, 

Division of Radio, Illinois State Police, 

Springfield 

President Elect, APCO 



Municipal Police 
Committee: 



Chairman: Captain Frank D. Campbell, 

Communications Officer, City of Indianapolis, 

Indiana. 

Past President, APCO 

Capt. William L. Miller, Communications 
Officer, Police Department, City of 
Chicago, Illinois 

Capt. Howard P. Black, Communications 
Officer, Police Department, Mobile, Alabama. 
Past Secretary, President, APCO 

Anthony J. Gain, Chief, Electronics Division 
City of Los Angeles, California 



Fire Committee: 



Chairman: Jonnan I. Koski, Communications 
Supervisor, City of Fort Worth, Texas. 
Vice-President, APCO 

Sanford Smith, Municipal Engineer 
Greensboro, North Carolina. 

William Whiting, Director of 
Communications, Kern County, 
Bakersfield, California. 
Past President, APCO, IMSA 



Forestry-Conservation 
Committee: 



Chairman: Harold J. McGinnis, Communications 

Engineer, Wisconsin Conservation Department, 

Tomahawk. 

Past President, FCCA 

Fred Waters, Radio Engineer 
Arkansas State Forestry Commission 
Little Rock, Arkansas 
Past President, FCCA 



Highway Maintenance Chairman: Bernard Flood, Communications 
Committee: Engineer, Arizona Highway Department, 

Phoenix. 

Robert W. Grafe, Radio Communications 
Supervisor, Florida State Road Department, 
Tallahassee 

Willis M. Green, Radio Engineer 
Michigan Department of Highways, 
Lansing 



APCO Operating 
Procedure Committee: 



Chairman: Pauline Dickson 

Department of Public Safety 
St. Albans, West Virginia 



10 



PURPOSE 



This manual is primarily intended to furnish a basic operating guide 
to those persons inexperienced in the fundamentals of proper communi- 
cations procedure, and, to provide a reference manual for the veteran 
operator and for those whose responsibilities include that of the train- 
ing of others. 

It is intended that the operator learn that his communications sys- 
tem is a powerful separate force that must be handled so as to provide 
a useful and immediately responsive service to his department. The 
operator must learn that in law enforcement work in particular his 
communications system is an added weapon to his department and 
that as such it should be used when necessary and that otherwise it 
should be left alone. 

A radio system utilizes one of the nation's most valuable natural 
resources, the radio frequency spectrum. The right to use this resource 
can be jeopardized by ignorance of the Rules and Regulations of the 
Federal Communications Commission. 

The business of public safety communications, regardless of the spe- 
cific service, involves some interchange of communications between 
services for coordination of action on problems affecting more than one 
agency. For reasons of expedience or economy it is not uncommon for 
one service to perform dispatching for several other services. Further, 
many services are frequently required to some extent to coordinate 
with Federal agencies which have similar responsibilities. 

For these reasons it is almost mandatory that a common standard 
operating procedure be used by all services to promote more efficient 
communications, with the following benefits: 

A. Ease of understanding 

B. Elimination of errors 

C. Minimum communication time 

D. Development of a professional manner 

E. Interservice cooperation 



11 



Section I The Operator 




13 



SECTION 1.0 
THE OPERATOR 
Heritage and Responsibility: 

1-1 The terms dispatcher, operator, and communicator are synon- 

ymous and normally refer to persons operating base or fixed 
communications equipment. 

1.2 There are few positions in the Public-Safety Services which 
are subject to more continuous scrutiny than is that of a dis- 
patcher, or where a higher standard of performance must be the 
rule rather than the exception. 

1.3 Superior performance arises from devotion to duty and the 
determination to fulfill assigned responsibility. The spirit of 
"the Message to Garcia" still lives in public safety communica- 
tions. 

1.4 A good dispatcher must accept the responsibility to fulfill the 
requirements of his position. This includes the prompt, accurate, 
and courteous handling of message traffic in a professional man- 
ner so as to be of utmost assistance to the police officer, fireman, 
ranger, highway or public works officer or whomever the com- 
munication system was designed to serve. 

1.5 The dispatcher will be only as effective as his own initiative 
and sense of responsibility may dictate, and neither the material 
in this manual nor that in any other will compensate for care- 
lessness, lack of sincere effort, dishonesty, or disregard of estab- 
lished regulation. 

He can be, by his own choice and action, an example of all that 
is good in public safety communications, admired and respected 
throughout the service, or he can be, again only by his own 
choice, a discredit to his service and to his superiors through dis- 
regard of his responsibilities. But in the latter instance, not for 
long. 

1.6 Whichever he is, he will be an example, either good or bad, 
because of his position. Mobile unit operators, however poor their 
procedure, are rarely heard by anyone other than their own dis- 
patchers or a limited number of their own mobile stations. The 
base station operator, on the other hand, is heard by all of his 
own mobile stations and he is in frequent contact with other base 
or fixed stations and services, often through several different 
communications media. He is the point of contact through which 
most information is received or disseminated and to all with 
whom he is in contact he represents his department. 

1.7 He can do more by example in training mobile operators than 

15 



any classroom session. His procedure, good or bad, will be emu- 
lated unconsciously. His position is one of control and he is ex- 
pected to promote an orderly and legal operating procedure. 

1.8 In extreme emergencies or disaster, when traffic mushrooms 
due to auxiliary personnel and the requirements of interservice 
coordination, when emotion mounts high, and when success 
seems impossible, the cases are legion where a calm, courteous 
and alert dispatcher has brought order out of chaos simply by 
analyzing the message traffic he hears and suggesting the best 
application of the resources which he knows to be available. 

1.9 The dispatcher must know the capabilities and limitations of 
the communication systems that he is authorized to operate. 
He must be familiar with the administrative organization of his 
department so as to be able to route traffic properly, and be 
knowledgeable of the equipment and resources available to his 
department for the process of their duties, both regular and 
emergency. He must be familiar with the organization and com- 
munications capabilities of cooperating agencies and with the 
rules and regulations of the Federal Communications Commis- 
sion which are applicable. 

1-10 Basic Qualifications Summary: 

a. Ability to speak clearly and distinctly at all times. 

b. Ability to reduce rambling and disconnected material in- 
to concise and accurate messages. 

c. Ability to think and act promptly in emergencies. 

d. Ability to analyze a situation accurately and to take or 
suggest an effective course of action. 

e. Thorough understanding of the capabilities of his own 
communications system and a working knowledge of co- 
operators' systems. * 

f. Adequate understanding of the technical operation of his 

W lntelligent rep rting of 



*> 



U1 ^dio Operator License Requirements: 

It is the responsibility of the state, county, or municipal agen- 

16 



cy holding the radio station license to assure that the system is 
operated in accordance with Federal Communications Commis- 
sion Rules and Regulations. While no operator's license is re- 
quired for most dispatching duties, the FCC nevertheless re- 
quires that any person operating a radio transmitter be familiar 
with its Rules. A copy of the FCC Rules should be on file at each 
operating position. 

1.12 The Mobile Unit Operator: 

This manual has the base station operator as its primary con- 
cern. However, there is a separate Section on mobile unit tech- 
niques (Section B3). It is recommended that the mobile unit 
operator become familiar with all Sections of this manual since 
it is not uncommon for the mobile unit operator to occasionally 
fill in at the base station operating position. Of more importance 
is the fact that, when the mobile unit operator is more aware of 
the problems of a base station operator, a mobile unit operator 
becomes a more intelligent user of the system channel and is 
thereby capable of making a major contribution to the operating 
efficiency of the system. 



17 



Section 2 Telephone Techniques 







19 



SECTION 2.0 
TELEPHONE TECHNIQUES 

2.1 It may seem strange to the uninitiated to find .a section on 
telephone technique in the forefront of a manual on public safe- 
ty communications. If so, it serves to indicate how much a part 
of our everyday lives the commonplace telephone has become. 
It is because of this public dependance on a household instru- 
ment that the public safety operator must be more aware of the 
telephone's importance. 

2.2 The telephone is the most available and, therefore, the most 
important means of access the citizen has of obtaining the serv- 
ices of a public safety department. It is the primary LINK be- 
tween professional and nonprofessional communications. 

2.3 The telephone is the fundamental method of communications 
within a department and is the chief means of informal or un- 
formed messages between departments. 

2.4 When you lift the receiver of your telephone you are about to 
meet someone, to engage in a conversation as important as a 
face-to-face visit, and YOU are the department. 

2.5 ANSWER PROMPTLY. Treat each call as an emergency. 
Place yourself in the place of one who may be ill or suffering 
from fear or panic. Every ring for that- person is an eternity. Try 
to answer within three rings. 

2.6 IDENTIFY YOURSELF AND YOUR DEPARTMENT. This 
insures the caller he has placed his call properly and calms the 
party who may require assistance. 

2.7 SPEAK DIRECTLY INTO THE MOUTHPIECE. This in- 
sures that you will be properly understood and will not waste 
time repeating information. Speak UP! Don't swallow your 
words. 

2.8 OBSERVE TELEPHONE COURTESY. A calm, competent, 
decisive voice that is courteous will never antagonize the caller. 

2.9 TAKE CHARGE of the conversation. After the initial ex- 
change, and you sense the need of the calling party, cut off su- 
perfluous wordage by leading the call into meaningful context 
by asking questions as to who, what, where, when. Be courteous 
but firm. 

2.10 TAKE ALL INFORMATION. Write it down. Never leave any- 
thing to memory. 

2.11 EXPLAIN WAITS. Explain why it will take time to check for 
information and that you will call back. A party waiting on a 

21 



"dead phone" may become irritable and uncooperative. 

2.12 AVOID JARGON or slang. Use good English. 

2.13 SHOW INTEREST in the person's call. The person calling 
has or needs information and to him it is important. 

2.14 USE CALLER'S NAME when possible; it makes him feel you 
have a personal interest in his call. 

2.15 Try to visualize the caller. The telephone is an impersonal 
thing and we may tend to be curt, less courteous or lose our tem- 
per easier than if we were meeting the party in person. 

2.16 Make sure the information gets to the proper person; never 
give the caller misinformation, never guess, but refer them to the 
proper party if it means transferring the call. If requested in- 
formation is not immediately available, obtain name and number 
and return call. 

2.17 Advise when you leave your telephone. Let your co-workers 
know of your whereabouts when leaving your position. 

2.18 Place and receive your own calls, this provides far better har- 
mony with the citizen than letting someone else do the calling. 

2.19 List frequently called numbers. Place such numbers as well as 
all other important numbers within view of the operating 
position. 

2.20 DO NOT SAY "Who's calling?" You will receive a better re- 
sponse, without a feeling of "It's none of your business," if you 
simply say "May I tell Mr. - who called?" 

2.21 Transfer calls only when necessary, and when necessary tell 
the caller what you are going to do. 

2.22 Terminate calls positively and courteously. 



22 



Section 3 Radiotelephone Voice Techniques 



.p 

i!Si? : ^..^a^i2 




23 



SECTION A3.0 

BASE STATION TECHNIQUES 

A3.1 The Public Safety voice (radiotelephone) radio base station 
is licensed primarily to intercommunicate with its mobile radio 
units and is secondarily licensed to intercommunicate with other 
public safety base stations. 

A3.2 The purpose of a public safety radio system is to dispatch 
messages and related information pertaining only to the official 
business of its licensed public safety organization (known to the 
Federal Communications Commission as the "user" or licensee ); 
to and between its mobile units. 

A3.3 The mobile units (stations) of a licensee, whether or not li- 
cejised separately from a base station, are under the control of 
its related manned base station. 

A3.4 The statements in the above items should cause the base sta- 
tion operator to be urgently aware of the basic importance of 
his position, and to know that the proper discharge of his duties 
can only be accomplished by monitoring his position. An opera- 
tor must operate, no more no less. 

A3.5 The foundation of a good operator rests upon reliability and 
promptness. The simplicity of this statement is disarming; when 
put into practice only an experienced operator can meet the 
rigid demands of "reliability and promptness." 

A3.6 Reliability should never be sacrificed for speed, yet speed is of 
equal importance. Learning and applying the techniques in this 
manual will help to equalize speed and reliability. 

A3.7 An operator is governed by the rules of his department as well 
as by the rules of the Federal Communications Commission. A 
public safety employed operator is not normally required (above 
25Mh/z) to be licensed by the FCC, and if not licensed, he must 
understand that his department is responsible to the FCC for 
his communications activities. If a restricted operator permit is 
desired, an FCC Form No. 753 must be filled out and sent to the 
Federal Communications Commission in Gettysburg, Pa. 17327. 
Application forms are available from the same address and from 
the FCC Field Office in your area. A two dollar fee must ac- 
company the application. 

A3.8 An operator, whether or not licensed, has the right to protect 
himself concerning his communications activities. In so doing 
he has the duty to advise his supervisor of any message he has 
been requested to dispatch or of any act he has been requested 
to perform, which, in his considered opinion, may reasonably 

25 



cause a violation of the Rules and Regulations of the Federal 
Communications Commission. Such advice should be preoffered 
with the tact and respect due a supervisor. 

A3.9 If, in such an instance as that noted in (3.8) above, the oper- 
ator is again requested to perform the reported upon act by his 
so advised supervisor then the operator should immediately per- 
form that act, and, should enter his pertinent and relative com- 
ments in the station log. 

A3.10 The licensee is required to have full and exclusive control at 
all times of the system equipment for which he is licensed. The 
licensee has the right to govern who may or may not open cabi- 
nets or equipment rooms. 

A3.ll An inspector of the FCC has the right to inspect the licensee's 
equipment and the station logs and records at any reasonable 
hour. You should request any person representing himself as an 
FCC Inspector to show his credentials before making your re- 
cords and premises available. 

A3.12 The operating position should be the depository of the keys to 
all transmitter cabinets and rooms, including those at remote 
sites. The keys should be tagged or otherwise identified. 

A3. 13 Do not accept any statement or report as necessarily true. 
Various persons usually will submit different versions of the 
same complaint or happening. 

A3. 14 Do not jump to conclusions with the information given. Stick 
to the facts. Do everything possible to obtain and furnish in- 
formation which will assist someone else to solve a matter or 
cause an appropriate act. 

A3.15 Operators should be familiar with the Rules and Regulations 
of the FCC which govern the operation of a radio station in the 
public safety radio services. (See Sec. 5) 

A3.16 A LOG is the station record required by the FCC The log is 
kept in written form.. (See Sec. 4) Use pen and ink or typewriter. 
A department may require certain entries in addition to those 
required by the FCC. (See Section 5) 

A3.17 The operator must sign on the station log when reporting for 
duty and sign off when relieved. NAME AND INITIALS must 
be shown, not just initials. 

A3.18 In signing on and off duty, the operator going off duty should 
sign on one line, giving time and full name. The relief operator 
should sign on the next lower line in like manner. Time of these 
actions must be placed in the columns provided on the log form. 

26 



A3. 19 It should be the duty of each operator reporting for duty to 
read the log and familiarize himself with any activity called to 
his attention by the operator going off duty. 

A3.20 If the station is not operated twenty-four hours a day, it is 
suggested that the station be verbally signed on the air at the 
beginning of each day of activity, and be verbally signed off at 
the end of each day of operation. Example: "This is the Public 
Works radio station of the City of Jonesville, Florida, now in 
service at 0800, operator (name) on duty, KIE ---." At the end 
of the day: "This is the Public Works radio station of the City 
of Jonesville, Florida, now out of service at 1700, operator 
(name) off duty, KIE ---." 

A3 .21 Log sheets should be numbered consecutively, sheet number 
one (1) starting just after midnight (2400) on the first day of 
each month and continuing until midnight of the last day of 
the month. 

A3.22 A completely new log sheet should be started at the beginning 
of each day. If the operator's duty runs from night of one day 
until morning of the next, upon the first minute of the morning 
of the next day, 0001, the next log .sheet should be numbered 
and dated. However, if the operator signs off his tour of duty 
during the early morning hours and his relief comes on several 
hours later, the same log sheet will be used as if no break had 
occured, except, of course, in the matter of the time of entries. 

A3.23 If corrections are made in the log, the original entry MUST 
NOT BE DEFACED OR RUBBED OUT IN ANY MANNER. 
Simply draw a line through the entry, in such a manner that the 
entry can still be read, and enter your initials after the original 
entry and on the same line, THE DATE ALSO. Make correct 
entry on the following line in the usual manner. 

A3.24 Operators must be familiar with all stations to be monitored. 
The call letters and locations of such stations should be known 
by all operators. 

A3.25 Operators should not make adjustments to the radio equip- 
ment except as provided in the nature of control knobs, etc. 

A3.26 Operators must listen to the circuit before keying the trans- 
mitter in order to not cause interference. NEVER CALL A STA- 
TION WHILE ANOTHER STATION OR CAR IS WORKING. 
BE COURTEOUS. 

A3.27 Operators must familiarize themselves with the counties, cities, 
and important areas the station serves. Proper pronunciation 
must be used. 

27 



A3.28 The operator must not leave the operating position at the 
control desk unless absolutely necessary and then only by means 
of a relief operator or by temporarily signing the station off the 
air. He must return immediately upon fulfillment of any other 
requirements. THE OPERATOR'S DUTY IS ONE OF OPER- 
ATING, AND MONITORING OTHER STATIONS IS OF VI- 
TAL IMPORTANCE. STAY ON THE JOB! 

A3.29 Courtesy can be more aptly expressed by the tone of voice and 
manner of presentation then by words. Eliminate all unneces- 
sary talking. Never say "thank you" or "please." 

A3.30 Study the construction of a message before transmitting it. 
If necessary, write it out on scratch paper and then cut it down 
to telegram brevity. Don't be brusque, just be direct. 

A3.31 Time on the air is your priceless commodity. Never forget that 
your department radio station license is not a bill of sale for the 
frequency on which your station operates. It is, rather, public 
notification that a federal regulatory body has allowed or "per- 
mitted" your department to use a frequency for a period of five 
years. Continued and knowledgeable rules violations will result 
in that privilege being revoked. Unnecessary time on the air is 
a senseless waste of a valuable public resource. 

A3.32 Words or voice inflections which when broadcast reflect or 
indicate irritation, disgust or sarcasm, must not be used. Rela- 
tions with other operators must remain cordial at all times. 

A3.33 Be absolutely impersonal while on the air. Avoid the egotisti- 
cal "I," and concentrate on third person language. 

A3.34 Avoid familiarity. Use proper names and titles or unit identi- 
fiers (see Sec. B3.14). 

A3.35 NEVER CHANGE A SINGLE WORD IN A FORMAL MES- 
SAGE WHICH IS RECEIVED FOR RELAY PURPOSES. RE- 
CORD AND RETRANSMIT IT EXACTLY AS GIVEN. 

A3.36 A station originating a formal message which is to be relayed 
on the air by the receiving station should monitor the receiving 
station so as to certify that the message is retransmitted 
correctly. 

A3.37 Long messages should be broken into phrases and each phrase 
repeated once before going to next phrase of the message. 

A3.38 At the end of two or three phrases of a long message the op- 
erator should inquire "So Far?" of the station or car to which 
he is transmitting. This is done in order to reduce the number 

28 



of repeats, because if the receiving operator misses any part of 
a message he has missed all the meaning of the message. 

A3.39 An operator should not receipt for traffic until he is sure he 
has it correctly. If fill-ins are required the following form should 
be used: "Go ahead (from the last word received) to (the first 
word received after the blank)." Or, if completed except for the 
beginning or ending, say "Repeat up to" (the first word re- 
ceived), or, "Repeat all after" (the last word received). 

A3.40 If, after calling a station or car twice, no reply is received, 
sign off the air. Then call again in about a minute. Do not fill 
the air with incessant and useless calls. 

A3.41 At the end of a transmission when a reply is expected, the 
words "Go ahead" should be used. Do not use the term "Over" 
or "Come In." 

A3.42 When a station calls another station for information, and the 
receiving station does not have the information directly at hand, 
the receiving station should request a Standby (10-6) and sign 
its call letters; in this way the air is clear for other traffic while 
the desired information is being obtained. 

A3.43 Any station calling must be answered promptly. If it is im- 
possible to take a message at the time, the station must still be 
answered immediately and advised 10-6. If a message can be 
taken, the operator will say "Go Ahead, (city or station or car.)" 
UNDER NO CIRCUMSTANCE ALLOW A CALLING STA- 
TION TO GO UNHEEDED. GIVE A STANDBY IF NECES- 
SARY, BUT AT LEAST ANSWER THE CALL. 

A3.44 NEVER FORGET A STANDBY! If you have asked a station 
or car to standby, don't forget to call him back as soon as possi- 
ble. To do otherwise is not only breach of operating techniques; 
it is, in fact, an insult. 

A3.45 Use the name of your geographical location in calling up or in 
answering calls, "Lake City -- (to) -- Ocala." "Ocala, go ahead, 
Lake City." "Richmond -- (to) - 21 (mobile unit)." "21, go 

ahead, Richmond." 

i 

A3.46 It is traditional in the public safety radio services to give the 
name of the calling station first - then the name of the station 
being called. This practice started in the early days of public 
safety radio when static and noise on the low frequencies then 
in use made it necessary for the called station to be alerted that 
something was coming through the racket. That "alert" was the 
calling station announcing its own name first so that at least 
the station being called would have heard its own name, and if 

29 



it had failed to hear the name of the calling station, it could ask 
for the unknown station calling to repeat. In this present day 
of congested radio channels this practice is still found to be 
that most useful. 

A3 .47 Use the call sign of your station at the end of each message 
(not necessarily at the end of each transmission as there may be 
several transmissions in one message). This not only helps in 
complying with an FCC regulation but it also will indicate to 
other waiting stations that you have completed this particular 
bit of your business and that you have signed your station off the 
air so those other stations waiting may use the channel. 

A3.48 Example: (3.46-47): "Jonesville - Brownsville, 10-43." 
"Brownsville, go ahead, Jonesville." "Car 14 10-23, KIE 
"10-4, Jonesville, KIE 

A3.49 Signing of a station's call sign is one of the most important 
functions of the operator, both because it is necessary by Federal 
Rules and because it is the mark of distinction of that particular 
station. It must be done in a manner which clearly indicates that 
the operator is proud of the service his station offers, and this 
is accomplished by putting the accent on the next to last 
number in the call sign. KIE 886 is KIE 886. The voice is raised 
a complete octave on the 8. KIF 763 is KIF 763. KJG 29 is 
KJG ^9. Let your system know that your station is awake, 
listening, ready. 

A3.50 An operator's voice should give the distinct impression that he 
is on his toes, alert, ready for any contingency. His reply to a 
call must be immediate and decisive. Nothing imparts confi- 
dence as does an operator whose voice is impersonal, clear, in- 
stant, completely ready to serve. Nothing destroys confidence as 
does a voice which conveys the weary impression of: "what the 
h do you want?", or that it took all of its strength to push 
the mike button, or, that signs off in a garble that threads away 
into oblivion. 

A3.51 Definite time should be specified instead of indefinite; for ex- 
ample; "September 10" instead of 'Today, date, yesterday, or 
tomorrow." Definite hour and minute time should be used, and 
not, "a few minutes ago," etc. 

A3.52 Numbers should be repeated first individually as integers, and 
then as the whole number. Example, 1,527,617, is transmitted; 
1,5,2,7,6,1,7 (pause), one million, five hundred twenty-seven 
thousand, six hundred seventeen." 

A3.53 The number "0" is normally pronounced as "zero." 

30 



A3.54 Numbers are an important part of your message reading. Their 
confusion and mis-copying can lead to much trouble, both for 
your department and the others to whom your messages are ad- 
dressed. Following is the correct pronunciation of numbers: 

1-"WUN" . . . with a strong W and N 

2-"TOO" with a strong and long OO 

3-"TH-R-EE" . with a slightly rolling R and long EE 
4-"FO-WER" . with a long and strong W and final R 

5-"FIE-YIV" . with a long I changing to short and strong Y 
and V 

6-"SIKS" . . . with a strong S and KS 

7-"SEV-VEN". .with a strong S and V and well-sounded YEN 

8-"ATE" .... with a long A and strong T 

9-"NI-YEN" . . with a strong N at the beginning, a long I and 
a well sounded YEN 

0-"ZERO" . . . with a strong Z and a short RO 

A3.55 Do not use superfluous words. Never ask "what is your 10-20," 
Instead, ask "10-20?" Don't say "10-6 just a minute." say "10-6." 

A3.56 Don't take time to explain why a 10-6 is necessary. The re- 
ceiving station should honor a 10-6 without question. Any long 
drawn out explanation only causes useless traffic and delay in 
the system. 

A3.57 FORGET HUMOR! Your radio system suffers enough without 
it. 

A3.58 Twenty-four hundred hour time is preferred over common 12 
hour time. If a person receives a message which has been relayed 
through several stations advising him to meet someone at a cer- 
tain place at "3 o'clock" the following date there is a distinct 
possibility the person will wonder if the time given is morning 
or afternoon time. Also, the letters AM and PM are often mis- 
understood over the air. The use of 2400 time will eliminate the 
necessity of entering AM or PM at noon and midnight on the 
log forms. (See Sec. 4) 

A3.59 Be familiar with the areas serviced by your organization. 
Learn the location of highways and other important geographic 
points. Seek to improve your knowledge of other cooperating 
organizations and know: 

A. How to contact the organizations. 

31 



B. Who to contact within the organizations. 

C. Service they render, what equipment and forces they have 
available. 

D. Location of their facilities and distances to your area or 
station. 

Most Public-Safety organizations have coordinated emergency 
plans for times of emergency or disaster. Familiarize yourself 
with these plans and with your designated role under such con- 
ditions. 

A3.60 Do not guess! Check all doubtful words. Never acknowledge a 
transmission unless you are sure that you have it correct and 
understand it. If the terminology used in the system you are 
operating on is unfamiliar to you, learn its. meaning. 

A3.61 Caution should be exercised in attempting to explain or ampli- 
fy a message given to you to transmit. If the person receiving 
the message indicates doubt as to the meaning of a message re- 
peat the message verbatim. If the person receiving the message is 
still unable to understand the meaning of the message, refer the 
message to the originator for clarification. 

A3.62 Avoid phrases and words that are difficult to copy. Some ex- 
amples of poor and preferred words are listed: 



Poor Preferred 

Want Desire 

Can't Unable 

Buy Purchase 

Get Obtain 

Send Forward 

Do you want Advise if 

Find out Advise if 

Call and see Check 



32 



A3.63 Dispatching names can be accomplished accurately by first 
pronouncing the complete name; then spelling the first name, 
giving the first letter of the name phonetically; then pronounc- 
ing the last name and then spelling it phonetically (see Sec.4): 

Example: 

"John Phares" 

"J-John-O-H-N" 

"Phares" 

"P-Paul" 

"H-Henry" 

"A-Adam" 

"R-Robert" 

"E-Edward" 

"S-Sam" 

Then pronounce the whole name - 

"John Phares" 

It is better to spend the extra time required in spelling names 
clearly, since, for example, this name could easily have been 
copied "Fares", "Farres", or Ferris", depending upon local pro- 
nunciation. 

A3.64 Remember the word "CYMBALS" when describing motor 
vehicles. Start at the top and move down according to the 
following: 

Color 

Year 

Make 

Body style 

And 

License 

Serial (yehicle Identification Number) 

A3.65 A station operator should ask a telephone caller to wait until 
it can be determined if an incoming radio call is urgent. Only .a 
few seconds will be required to copy a short message and re- 
sume the telephone call, or, advise 10-6 if the telephone call 
proves more urgent. 

33 



A3.66 If a station operator has a message of any length which must 
be copied by a mobile operator, the sending station should so 
indicate a message to be copied. This will allow the mobile oper- 
ator time to move out of traffic if necessary ( alone in car, etc. ) 
and prepare to copy the message. This may avoid having to re- 
peat or will give the mobile operator an opportunity to advise 
his status. He might be on the way in to headquarters, making 
transmission of the message unnecessary. Message could be 
handled as follows: 

Example: 

Base: "Charleston - 210, 10-63." 

Car: "210, Charleston, Adams and Monroe, 10-6." 

Then: "210, Charleston. Go ahead with traffic." 

A3.67 The international distress signal is the spoken word "MAY- 
DAY" from the French term "M'aidez" which is a request for 
help. This signal is in regular use, particularly in the aeronauti- 
cal and maritime fields, and should be immediately recognized 
by any operator as an urgent call for aid. Its reception and all 
pertinent traffic and/or action should be logged. This signal 
should not be used for any other than a situation of extreme 
gravity and its false or fraudulent use is prohibited, 

A3.68 There are other signals which indicate emergency. Operators 
should be instantly familiar with these, among which are 
"10-33", "10-34", the spoken word "urgent" repeated several 
times, or simply the word "help." When assistance is needed in 
minor emergencies such a word as * 'assistance" will indicate the 
degree of urgency. 

A3.69 Some form of an "in service" and "out of service" mobile unit 
log (10-7 and 10-8) should be carefully maintained. This record 
is used constantly in dispatch operations and it is all important 
when an emergency situation demands the need for all mobile 
units with a minimum delay. Also, it is of great importance to 
a person who is on an investigation or to the mobile operator 
who must leave his radio equipped vehicle and go into some 
area on foot or alone. Should either encounter trouble, the fact 
that the dispatcher knows his last location and his logical time 
of return to service may then mean the difference between life 
and death. 

The status control method may be a written log, a map with 
indicators, a sophisticated status board, or other means. 

34 



A3.70 The TEN SIGNALS are listed in Section 4. They were orig- 
inally formulated by Illinois APCO members in 1935 and they 
were registered and officially adopted by National APCO in 
1940. They have been universally used since that time by all 
types of two-way radio users. 

The purpose of the TEN SIGNALS is two-fold: to achieve 
reliability and speed. 

Reliability is achieved 'by the TEN (10-) portion of the signal 
wherein the "10-" is an euphonic "alert" attesting to the fact 
that information is about to follow. (See Sec. A3.46). 

The SIGNAL portion (number following the 10-) is the in- 
formation content. It is the condensation of several words and 
it therefore achieves Speed by the use of brevity. It also achieves 
speed due to the fact that numbers, because of inflection, are not 
as easily confused as words, and, because numbers are more 
easily read through the noise that is ever present in a two-way 
radio system. 

A TEN SIGNAL is complete in itself. If it is not correctly 
used it would be better not to use it at all, since the meaning is 
not clear and the transmission ungrammatical. 

Examples: 

Correct - "10-4, Rockford." 
Incorrect - "I am 10-4 on that information, Rockford." 



Correct - "Car 5, 10-20." 

Incorrect - "Car 5, what is your 10-20." 

Correct - "Car 5, Main and Adams." 

Incorrect - "Car 5, my 10-20 is Main and Adams." 

Correct - "Jackson, car 9, 10-1." 

Incorrect - "Jackson, car 9, your signal is 10-1." 

A3.71 Reliability is improved in radiotelephone transmissions by the 
best qualities of dialect, euphony and enunciation. Pronounce 
words clearly and somewhat slowly; a rate of about 60 words 
per minute is proper. 

A3. 72 A standard message form is recommended to be used by non- 
operating personnel when they wish a mesage to be handed to 

35 



the dispatcher for transmission. This should be used whenever it 
is important that the exact text be accurately received. The form 
should also be used by the dispatcher to copy incoming messages 
and to deliver them to the addressee. (See Sec. 4). 

A careful operator will insist on the use of such a form as it is 
his protection from criticism by either sender or receiver in case 
of misunderstanding or related problems. It will eliminate mis- 
directed messages and insure the accuracy of messages sent. It 
will establish time and responsibility. Messages on the standard 
form are readily adaptable for transmission by any normal me- 
dium such as radiotelephone, teletype, telephone, mail, or by 
runner. A copy retained by both operator and sender or ad- 
dressee will verify accuracy. Importance of the form increases 
with the volume of interagency or interdepartment traffic. 

The minimum required information that such a form should 
contain is indicated on a sample made part of this manual. 

A3.73 COMMON ERRORS WITH CORRECTIONS 

INCORRECT CORRECT 

"Trailer hitch on rear" Where else would they nor- 

"Trunk on rear" mally be? "Trailer hitch; 

"Fog light on front bumper" trunk; fog light" 



"'66 Ford sedan color black" "Black '66 Ford sedan" 

****** 

"Be on the lookout for . . ." "Attempt to locate ..." 

****** 

"Pick up and hold" For what? By what authori- 

ty? State definite charges or 
acts. 

****** 

"Golden-voice Philco radio" Don't put out commercial 

plugs. 

****** 



36 



INCORRECT 

"Stolen car with Motor Club 
sticker on rear window and 
Junior Commando sticker on 
windshield, etc. 



CORRECT 

Information unimportant 



"Maryland GE-19-32" 



"GE-19-32" ... if your loca- 
tion is Maryland assume the 
current year and Maryland 
plate when broadcasting; in- 
dicate only if other state or 
year, and, if the message is 
intended for out of state in- 
quiry. 



"Stolen between 9:57 and "About 2200" ... if not an 

10:10 p.m. inprogress criminal act. 



****** 



'Height 6-71/2" 



"Height 5-7" . . . fractional 
description not vital. 



****** 



"Wanted for passing fraudu- "Wanted for BAD checks" or 

lent checks" "Wanted on warrant for bad 

. . ." Use phrasing easy to 

copy. 



****** 



"Bad interference. I am hav- Who cares? . 

ing noise from an electric call." 

motor. I will have to call 
later." 



. "10-1, will 



****** 



"I didn't get the part about Don't ramble. Never use "I." 

calling for the car . . . what's Be impersonal. Ask for fills 

the address?" "10-9 all after . ." 



****** 



37 



INCORRECT CORRECT 

"Easton-Waterloo, come in." "Easton-Waterloo, 10-63." 



"Randallstown answering "Randallstown, go ahead, 

Frederick." Frederick." 

****** 

"KGA-915 to Washington." "Waterloo- Washington." 



38 





Objects in mouth 




Excessive transmission 





Hesitant indecisive 





7 



Poor mike technique 




Phrasing 




Anger in voice 




HOW DO THEY READ YOU? 



.... Normally, that is. But there's an- 
other thing .... how about stuck mike 
buttons? If the other guy's is stuck, 
you can't tell him about it, for his 
transmitter will be on and he can't re- 
ceive at the same time. If YOURS is 
stuck, nobody can tell YOU, either. In 
fact, in the normal system with ump- 
teen mobile and base stations, how 
CAN you tell whose is stuck? 

The best answer is for everyone to 
check his little red transmitter light 
occasionally. Better still, be suspicious 
if everything gets too quiet, you may 
be "on" and don't know it. If so, every- 
thing you say will be going out over 
the air, and we can't draw a picture 
horrible enough to depict your feelings 
at the awful moment of discovery 

At that time they'll be reading you... 



TOO WELL? 





Pitch too high 






Vocalized pause 





Pitch too low 






Voice quality 



39 



SECTION B3.0 
MOBILE UNIT TECHNIQUES 

B3.1 "CAR 54 WHERE ARE YOU?" is, of course, a foolish and in- 
ane question, yet it is the basis for a majority of questions ask- 
ed in normal mobile unit intercommunications. Because of the 
waste of airtime in this senseless type of questioning, this Sec- 
tion begins with perhaps the most important statement in mobile 
unit techniques: "ALWAYS GIVE YOUR 10-20 WHEN CALL- 
ED!" Don't make the calling station ask for it. 

B3.2 The waste of airtime in (Sec. B3.1) is not the only waste con- 
cerned. Your location immediately tells if you are in an area 
that is suddenly under scrutiny, or that you are close enough to 
be of assistance in another such area, that you are in position 
to pick up a relay, why your signal may be weak, and a dozen 
other things. It speeds up overall system efficiency. Don't be a 
Car 54. Always let your department know where you are; this 
is one of the main reasons for the expenditure of tax-supported 
funds for the purchase of your radio. GIVE YOUR 10-20 WHEN 
CALLED! 

B3.3 When called, the mobile unit operator should answer as, 
example: 

Base: "Jonesville - 99, 10-12." 

Mobile: "99, Jonesville, Live Oak and Canal, 10-4, 99." 

Or, 
Base: "Smithville - 201, 10-77." 

Mobile: "201, Smithville, 5 miles out on road 500. 10-77 1430. 
Go ahead." 

When calling: 

Mobile: "5 - Brownsville. 10-7, Mercy Hospital. 5" 
Base: "10-7, Mercy Hospital, 5. KIE 

Repeated (confirmed) signals, call numbers, and location may 
seem to be cumbersome and may be considered too complex a 
procedure for a small system, but, reliability ingrained in one 
sphere of activity reflects in others. In the large system, or in 
one subject to interference from other systems, it is difficult for 
a unit otherwise to be certain that the base station is answering 
him and has received his information correctly. 

B3.4 Two other most important requirements for a mobile unit are 

41 



the advisements to the base station of the unit's 10-7's and 
10-8's. Nothing is so revealing of a system's efficency as a sta- 
tion log that on one line indicates a mobile out of service and on 
the next line exhibits a message from that unit without benefit of 
a 10-8. Of more importance is the damage done by relying on the 
emergency assistance of a mobile unit whose status board light 
is on but who has arbitrarily gone 10-7 and then is silent during 
a crisis. ALWAYS GIVE 10-7 and 10-8! 

B3.5 If for any reason it is necessary for a mobile unit to call a 
station not associated with its own system, the mobile station 
- should identify itself by using the name of ( its governmental en- 
tity and its mobile designator. 

Example: 
"Lee County Car 73 - Sangamon County, 10-43." (See Sec. B3.9) 

B3.6 Because of the complexity of operation in a communications 
center, base station operators can give attention only to sig- 
nals which are readable. Units calling in and receiving 10-1 
without further explanation should realize the operator can hear 
the call but cannot read, and cannot afford to clutter the air 
with repeated 10-9's. 

B3.7 It is not necessary for a mobile unit operator to have an FCC 
license. He is, however, required to know the applicable Rules 
and Regulations of the FCC and is therefore responsible and 
accountable for his communications activities (See Sec. 5). 

B3.8 Every mobile radio station is required to exhibit (post) an 
executed FCC form 452-C at its control point (on or near the 
control head). A sticker or plate may be substituted for the 
form but the substitute must bear the same information as the 
form. The mobile unit operator should always advise his super- 
visor, or his technical maintenance division, if the form is muti- 
lated or missing, 

B3.9 Regardless of examples before mentioned, IF THE MOBILE 
STATIONS IN A SYSTEM ARE LICENSED SEPARATELY 
FROM THEIR ASSOCIATED BASE STATION then such mo- 
bile units are required to use that call sign at the end of each 
transmission (or series of related transmissions). The mobile 
unit designator may also be used. Example: 

Base: "Jonesville - 22. 10-43." 

Mobile: "22, Jonesville, county courthouse. Go ahead." 

Base: (gives message) 

Mobile: "10-4, Jonesville. 22, KA ." 

42 



This procedure is also required, whether or not seperately 
licensed, in direct car-to-car intercommunications. Remember 
that the reason for all this is to allow FCC monitors to easily 
identify any licensee heard on the air. 

This procedure is also required when the units of one licensee 
intercommunicates with the stations of another licensee (see 
Sec. B3.5). 

B3.10 A given system should consider whether or not it will permit 
freewheeling mobile unit intercommunications or whether mo- 
bile-to-mobile communications must first be cleared with the as- 
sociated base station. A system of any size generally cannot 
stand free car-to-car communications since the mobile units have 
no way of knowing when the base station is monitoring a distant 
station. It is normally desirable for the base station to require 
the mobile units to request direct car-to-car radio contact. 

B3.ll When using a mobile station, hold the microphone approxi- 
mately one inch from lips, press the microphone button down 
firmly, and then speak slowly and clearly across the mouthpiece 
in a normal to loud voice. Do not hold the microphone directly 
in front of your mouth, but slightly to the side, and at an angle 
of about 45, so that you talk across the face of the microphone 
instead of "blowing" into it 

Shouting or yelling into the microphone will cause an extreme- 
ly distorted signal and must be avoided even though there is 
a great amount of noise from the engine or nearby activities. It 
is also essential that your voice maintain a constant volume 
which does not trail off. 

B3.12 Think before you transmit. Know what you want to say. Press 
button. Hesitate an instant. Speak. Speak distinctly. Be brief. 
Be concise. Be impersonal. Do not mumble. Do not shout. Do 
not talk too fast. Do not become excited. Do not try to trans- 
mit while someone else is transmitting. 

B3.13 Do not transmit: 

1. During a Civil Defense test, or during an actual enemy 
attack except as directed. 

2. Within 200 yards of blasting operations, or where blasting 
caps are stored. (These areas are usually posted). 

3. When advised by a base station to stand-by due to inter- 
ference with other communication which you may not be 
hearing. 

4. When' your transmission will obviously interfere with com- 
munications in progress, or such communication will ob- 

43 



viously make your transmission unintelligible. 

5. Lengthy messages when your engine is not running unless, 
of course, you are reporting engine faliure. Keep your trans- 
missions short and as infrequent as possible. 

B3.14 The use of unit designators is allowed by the Federal Com- 
munications Commission in recognition of the normal difficulty 
of calling or identifying mobile stations. The specific system of 
unit designation must be worked out by each department to fit 
its particular communication system and organizational plan. 

B3.15 Small departments may use consecutive numbers to identify 
the mobile stations. Large departments may use various series 
of numbering to designate different divisions or tasks within the 
department, such as Nos. 1-99 to indicate supervisory personnel 
and 100-899 to indicate patrol officers or field personnel and 
900-999 to indicate technical services. Other departments use 
combinations of letters and numbers. 

B3.16 In any event, it should be borne in mind that unit designators 
refer only to the mobile radiotelephone station and not to the 
man operating it, although the man may become so identified 
with the designator that the two are synonomous. The Federal 
Communications Commission licenses are for station-to-station 
operation, not person-to-person. If it is required to address a 
mesage to a specific officer he should be referred to by badge 
number, employee number, or by name. This could occur when 
a person normally associated with another mobile station is 
riding in another radio-equipped vehicle and a message is direct- 
ed to him. 

Example: 

Base: "Georgetown - 22. 10-43." 
Mobile: (answers)" 

Base: "Advise Officer Jones his car is ready at garage 
KIE '." 65- 

Remember, the FCC does not authorize unit designators for 
people to be used in lieu of unit designators for radiotelephones. 
However, some systems have the badge or employee number and 
the mobile unit designation as the same. Some systems. have 
special auto license plates and use this as the unit number. 

B3.17 Remember, the call sign of a mobile unit is the tag by which 
the FCC identifies your licensee. When necessary to say the call 
sign - say it! Don't garble - speak! KA2486 is not Katy Foo 
Is Sick!! 

44 



EXHIBITS (Section 4) 




REVISED OFFICIAL APCO TEN SIGNALS 

Radio users are urged to incorporate the use of the APCO TEN 
SIGNALS in their radio operating procedure. They are short, easily 
understood and convey maximum meaningful intelligence in minimum 
time. 

The proper use of these signals contributes significantly to the con- 
servation of air-time by restricting free choice of words to prescribed 
forms when transmitting that information which constitutes the major 
portion of daily radio traffic. Those signals marked by asterisk are 
those most in use. 

These signals serve a dual purpose inasmuch as they can be used 
to make a statement, or ask a question, simply by voice inflection. 

In order to provide a degree of security to their transmissions many 
departments assign "Post Numbers" to key locations. The use of these 
post numbers modified with distance and direction, permits them to 
pinpoint a specific location without giving it in plain language. 



*10-1 
*10-2 
*10-3 
*10-4 
*10-5 
*10-6 
*10-7 

*10-8 
*10-9 
10-10 
10-11 

* 10-12 

* 10-13 
10-14 
10-15 
10-16 
10-17 

* 10-18 



Unable to copy - change location 

Signals good 

Stop transmitting 

Acknowledgement 

Relay 

Busy - Stand by unless urgent 

Out of service (Give location and/ or 
telephone number) 

In service 

Repeat 

Fight in progress 

Dog Case 

Stand by (stop) 

Weather and road report 

Report of prowler 

Civil disturbance 

Domestic trouble 

Meet complainant 

Complete assignment quickly 



47 



* 10-19 Return to . 

* 10-20 Location 

* 10-2 1 Call by telephone 

* 10-22 Disregard 

* 10-23 Arrived at scene 

* 10-24 Assignment completed 

* 10-25 Report in person to (meet) 

10-26 Detaining subject, expedite 

10-27 Drivers license information 

* 10-28 Vehicle registration information 

* 10-29 Check records for wanted. 

* 10-30 Illegal use of radio 
10-31 Crime in progress 
10-32 Man with gun 

*10-33 EMERGENCY 

10-34 Riot 

10-35 Major crime alert 

* 10-36 Correct time 

10-37 Investigate suspicious vehicle 

10-38 Stopping suspicious vehicle (Give station 
complete description before stopping). 

10-39 Urgent-Use light and siren 

10-40 Silent run - No light or siren 

* 10-41 Beginning tour of duty 
*10-42 Ending tour of duty 

* 10-43 Information 

10-44 Request permission to leave patrol 

for 

10-45 Animal carcass in lane at 

10-46 Assist motorist 

10-47 Emergency road repairs needed 

10-48 Traffic standard needs repairs 

10-49 Traffic light out 

48 



*10-50 Accident -- F, PI, PD 

* 10-5 1 Wrecker needed 

* 10-52 Ambulance needed 
10-53 Road blocked 

10-54 Livestock on highway 

* 10-55 Intoxicated driver 
10-56 Intoxicated pedestrian 
10-57 Hit and run - F, PI, PD 
10-58 Direct traffic 

* 10-59 Convoy or escort 
10-60 Squad in vicinity 
10-61 Personnel in area. 

* 10-62 Reply to message 

* 10-63 Prepare to make written copy 

* 10-64 Message for local delivery 

* 10-65 Net message assignment 

* 10-66 Message cancellation 

* 10-67 Clear to read net message 

* 10-68 Dispatch information 

* 10-69 Message received 

* 10-70 Fire alarm 

10-71 Advise nature of fire (size, type, and 

contents of building) 

10-72 Report progress on fire 

10-73 Smoke report 

*10-74 Negative 

* 10-75 In contact with 

* 10-76 En Route 

* 10-77 ETA ( Estimated Time of Arrival ) 
10-78 Need assistance 

10-79 Notify coroner 

10-80 

10-81 

49 



* 10-82 Reserve lodging 
10-83 

10-84 If meeting advise ETA 

10-85 Will be late 
10-86 

* 10-87 Pick up checks for distribution 

* 10-88 Advise present telephone number of 

10-89 

10-90 Bank alarm 

10-91 Unnecessary use of radio 

10-92 

10-93 Blockade 

10-94 Drag racing 

10-95 

10-96 Mental subject 

10-97 

10-98 Prison or jail break 

10-99 Records indicate wanted or stolen 



50 



APCO TEN SIGNALS 
INTERPRETATION 

10-3 To be used when other vehicles or stations are 
interfering with emergency traffic, (i.e., 10-37, 
10-33 in progress) 

10-5 Can be used to indicate the relay of a person, 
property or a message. If for the relay of a 
message, indicate destination. "10-5 to " 

10-6 If urgent traffic, it should be indicated on first 
call-up. 

10-11 Qualify by indicating the nature of the case - 
as dog bite, rabid, injured, etc. 

10-12 Physical stand by, remain alert. Not a stand 
by (10-6) on the radio. 

10-14 Give location. 

10-15 This can be applied to a disturbance with ra- 
cial overtones, rowdy group of teenagers, etc. - 
give location. 

10-16 Give location. 
10-17 Give location. 

10-24 Indicates personnel is back in service and avail- 
able for assignment. 

10-26 Indicates that this traffic should take prece- 
dence over routine traffic. 

10-31 Can be used when specific details are not 
available - give location. 

10-32 Can be used in conjunction with other signals, 
i.e., 10-10, 10-31, - give location. 

10-33 Maximum priority. Should be used on the ini- 
tial call to indicate traffic pertaining to danger 
to life or property. All stations or vehicles not 
involved in the emergency should maintain 
radio silence until the emergency is over or 
under control. 

10-34 Give location. 

10-35 Used to alert all stations or vehicles on the 
frequency to make themselves available to as- 
sist where needed - always followed with maxi- 

51 



mum information as to the nature of the crime 
and assistance needed. 

10-38 The officer MUST furnish maximum infor- 
mation BEFORE stopping suspicious vehicle. 
(Color, make, model and license of vehicle. 
Number of occupants, direction of travel, etc.) 
Each department should establish a time limit 
for the officer to indicate an "all clear" before 
all available assistance is sent. 

10-39 Can be used to give any other signal an emer- 
gency status. 

10-40 To be used to indicate haste, while observing all 
safety precautions and not attract attention. 

10-43 Use when asking if any, or supplying infor- 
mation. 

10-45 Give location. 

10-46 Give location. 

10-47 Indicate nature of repairs needed and location. 

10-48 Give location. 

10-49 Give location. 

10-50 F - Fatal PI - Personal Injuries PD Prop- 
erty Damage. 

10-53 Give location. 

10-54 Give location. 

10-55 Give location. 

10-56 Give location. 

10-57 Give location. 

10-58 Can be used to assist funeral procession, high- 
way repairs, etc. 

10-60 Give location or area. 

10-62 Use when inquiring for, or furnishing, reply to 
a previous message. Refer to previous number, 
if any. 

10-63 Used to inform a vehicle to park and write 
down the forthcoming radio message - the of- 
ficer will not advise the station to "go-ahead" 
until he is ready to copy. 

52 



10-64 Used when the message is not to be relayed by 
radio but must be delivered to someone in 
person or by telephone - may require a mes- 
sage in duplicate. 

10-65 Used by state nets to obtain the next message 
number to be assigned. 

10-67 Used to capture the circuit and to indicate all 
units and stations are to copy. 

10-68 Used for "attempt-to-locate" messages, etc. 

10-69 To inquire if, or state that, a message has been 
received. 

10-70 Give location. 

10-73 Used in Forestry Service when smoke has been 
observed. Give location or coordinates. 

10-75 "10-75, 11?" "10-4, 10-75, #11." 

10-76 "99 10-76 Jonesville 10-25 #2. 10-77 1600." 

10-77 See 10-76 above. 

10-82 Used by traveling personnel to request a sta- 
tion to obtain lodging reservations. The sta- 
tion should confirm after reservations have 
been made. 

10-84 To request general information on an intention, 
or as a specific inquiry regarding a previous 
request. ("Get with it if you're going to do it.*') 

10-85 "#2 10-85. 10-77 1630." 

10-88 Used to make certain a person is available for 
a station to station call, where he is at the 
moment 

10-90 Give location. 

10-93 To set up blockade in connection with a crime - 
to execute an existing blockade plan, or set up 
a blockade as the situation may require. 

10-96 To alert an officer he is dealing with a mental 
case. 

10-98 Follow by detailed information as soon as it 
becomes available. 

10-99 To alert an officer he is dealing with a person 
who is wanted or who may be driving a stolen 
vehicle without alarming the suspect. 

53 



PHONETIC ALPHABET 



The phonetic alphabet should be used for spelling out unusual 
names of persons and locations. The names used after each letter have 
been found to be the most understandable over the air. They should 
always be given as: "A'* - Adam, "B" - Boy .... never "A" as in Adam 
or "B" as for boy, etc. The alphabet is easily memorized. 



Standard Alphabet 



A Adam 

B Boy 

C Charles 

D David 

E Edward 

F Frank 

G George 

H Henry 

I Ida 

J John 

K King 

L Lincoln 

M Maiy 



N 
O 
P 

Q 



Nora 
Ocean 
Paul 
Queen 



R Robert 

S Sam 

T Tom 

U Union 

V Victor 

W William 

X X-ray 

Y Young 

Z Zebra 



55 



2400 HOUR TIME 



2400 HOUR TIME 12 HOUR TIME 

2400 Midnight (twenty-four hundred) 

0001 One minute after midnight. 

(zero zero zero one) 

0015 Quarter past midnight* 

(zero zero one five) 

0045 45 minutes past midnight. 

(zero zero four five) 

0100 One o'clock in the morning. 

(zero one hundred) 

0130 One thirty AM. (zero one three zero) 

0200 2 AM ( zero two hundred) 

0300 3 AM 

0400 4AM 

0500 5 AM 

0600 6AM 

0700 7AM 

0800 SAM 

0900 9AM 

1000 10 AM (ten hundred) 

1100 11 AM (eleven hundred) 

1200 NOON 

1201 One minute after noon (Twelve zero one) 
1215 Quarter past noon (Twelve fifteen) 
1300 (add 100 to 1200) 1 PM (Thirteen hundred) 

1345 (add 0045 to 1300) 1:45 PM (Thirteen forty-five) 

1400 (add 200 to 1200) 2 PM 

1500 (add 300 to 1200) 3 PM 

1600 (add 400 to 1200) 4 PM 

1700 (add 500 to 1200) 5 PM 

1800 (add 600 to 1200) 6 PM 

1900 (add 700 to 1200) 7 PM 

2000 (add 800 to 1200) 8 PM (Twenty hundred) 

2100 (add 900 to 1200) 9 PM (Twenty one hundred) 

2200 (add 1000 to 1200) 10 PM 

2300 (add 1100 to 1200) 11 PM 



57 




58 



STANDARD DESCRIPTIONS OF PERSONS 



ALWAYS GET IN THIS ORDER 
OMIT ANY ITEM YOU DO NOT HAVE 



JOHN DOE 



FINISH 

1 1 . CLOTHING 

HEAD TO FOOT 



MEMORIZE THE SEQUENCE ! 

USE IT ON THE XlR, ON 
THE TELEPHONE, AND IN 




RADIO AND COMMUNICATIONS DIVISION 



59 



LOG OF 
RADIO STATION 



DATE:. 



. CALL SIGN:_ 



FREQUENCY(s):. 



(NAME OF AGENCY) 



. SHEET NO:. 



TIME 



CALLED 



GENERAL INFORMATION 



0*00 



am 



10 - 



Ctfl 



10-26 



Of 



Q&L 



10^3 



10-7 



lo-'g 



OJ& 



60 



MESSAGE FORM #1 
(Inter or Intrasystem) 



EXAMPLE: 



15 SHRF LEE COUNTY ILL 12-20-66 (A. Preamble) 

PD CARBONDALE ILL (B. Address) 

DATA AND DISPOSITION RED 62 CHEVROLET (C. Text) 

4 DOOR ILL LL1948 VIN 21723T58723 

ABANDONED DIXON ILLINOIS THREE DAYS 

HELD ANDREWS GARAGE FRONT END DAMAGED 

NOT DRIVEABLE NO APPREHENSIONS WILL 

BE RELEASED TO OWNER ON PROOF OF 

OWNERSHIP 

SHERIFF LEE COUNTY 

ILLINOIS JRM 1530 CST (D. Signature) 



The preamble contains the message number, point of origin and 
the date transmitted. 

The address is the name of the department to which the message 
is directed. 

The text contains the intelligence to be transmitted. Note the con- 
cise wording of the text. No unnecessary words, but still very under- 
standable. If the message contained information that a person was be- 
ing detained, the message should indicate the charge or how long the 
suspect will be detained. 

The signature contains the source of authority, the initials of the 
operator and the time transmitted. 

Note omission of punctuation marks. 

61 



MESSAGE FORM #2 
(Intrasystem) 

For originating stations, the form is an aid in composition; for the 
relaying station the form is an aid for speedier copying and retrans- 
mission; for the receiving station the form, dangling from the staple, is 
a visual reminder it is yet to be delivered to the addressee. For all 
stations, the form is a record for the files, except, when delivered to the 
addressee personally; in this instance, the station Log Sheet must bear 
the complete message. Other station^ Logs show only the message num- 
ber, with message attached. 

At the bottom of the form, if "Station" abbreviation is same as ab- 
breviation in the message number then that particular station is the 
originating station; if different from destination station then that par- 
ticular station is a relaying station, if same as suffix then that particu- 
lar station is the destination station. All blank spaces at bottom must 
be filled: "Operator" will be person originating, relaying or receiving, 
"Time" will be time (r)eceived and (t)ransmitted. Word count (W.C.) 
is the number of words in the body of the message and it is used for 
the purpose of reliability. Number combinations, abbreviated caps, 
hyphenated words, eta, are counted as one word. 



R-A-D-I-O-G-R-A-M 
(Agency Name) 

MESSAGE NUMBER; A? 
FROM: 



TO ^ 1 1 TIME : 1H I 



,Li 



P.M. ^ 



.i 



Station; UL. Operator: ^\T~ IlneCR) ! i4yX(T) : |4l4 Date : 



62 



MESSAGE FORM #3 
(GENERAL)- 



(Agency name) 


MESSAGE FORM 


(FORM NO.) 


( Agency address) 




To: 


Da ted at (Location) 


196 Time 




Regular message D Urgent D 



TO AVOID ERRORS PLEASE TYPE OR PRINT IN CAPTIAL LETTERS 



Sender's name 

To be completed by operator: 
Received for tramission D 



. Badge No. . 



(Time) 



Sent D 



Delivered D. 



Received for delivery D. 
(Time) (Date) 196. by__ 



(Date) 196 



(Phone, runner) 



63 



Date. 



.Time. 



INFORMATION FORM 
. Received from 



Stolen car 
Lost plate 



Criminal act 
Stolen plates 



Complaint^ 



Time. 



Year. 



Missing person 
Identification 



Name. 



Stolen properly 
Miscellaneous 



Rnriy Style 


Weight 


License 


Hair 


VTN 


Ryes 


Other infnrmatinn 






Physical - scars, 








Rat 




Shirt, tie 




Coat 




Trousers 



WARRANT AND EXTRADITION INFORMATION 
Comments, or stolen property list 



Received by. 
64 



/ 


UNIT NO. LOCATfON 




TIME 










OUT OF SERVICE OR NOTIFIED 




r* 










j? 


EXTERNAL 


INTERNAL 






g 










IU 

> 


n 






- 


p 


n a 






t 


5 






Q SUBJECT TO CALL 


? 


X 






IN SERVICE 


" 




NOTIFIED: 1 1 PERSON ABOVE 








5 


n STREET OEPT. P~l TRAFFIC OEPT. 








K 














REMARKS 


DISPATCHER 










USEO CD 















FILE CHECKS 



SEARCHED BY! 



VEHICLE 



QOPR' LICENSE 



, FIRST. MIDDLE) 



DESCRIPTION: 



SEX RACE HAT I WOT HAIR EYE! 



VEHICLE IF DIFFERENT FROM ABOVE! 



MOT WANTED 



1 NOT IN FILE 



Q NO RECORD COMP1 . AINTN0 . 0( , AOT HOR,TY 



RADIO ADMINISTRATIVE FORM 1.1 



65 



y 




TIME 










QNWQNEJ JUSED Q 


o 




COMPLAINANT'S NAME Q REFUSED ADDRESS Q SAME AS LOC. TELEPHONE NO. 




CM 




a 


1 






III 






tt 

H 

z 


DISTURBANCE . . O FAMILY Q JUVENILES Q VEHICLES Q ANIMALS 


> 


J 


riv SB rn A T n 


" 


s 


LJ LJ LJ LJ 






REMARKS 







C~|M. 1. f~""l CASE f~] ACC. n ARREST 


DISPATCHER 







VEHICLE 


PERSONS 


TIME 










a 
















3 

o 
-i 

H 




STYLE 




BODY 


i 


COMP. 


GLASSES 


CLOTHING 








LIC. NO. 


JL.C.YR. 


N 

a 


SEX 


RACE 


AGE 


HOT 


WOT 


HAIR 


EYES 


STATE 




LIC. 


TYPE 


2 


COM 




CLASSES 


CLOTHING 








OTHER IDENTIFYING INFORMATION 


DIRECTION OF FLIGHT 
ON 


3 

o 

z 

X 


NOTIFICATIONS 


t~l AMBULANCE 


c 


] FIRE DEPT 


LJ" WRECKER 


NAME 


TELEPHONE NO. 1 BASIS l~~l OWNER'S REQUEST 
JO DOTATION Q NEAREST AVAIL. 


DEPT. ME 


MBERS NOTIFIED! TITLE h NA* 


E 












ADDITION 


AL INFORMATION 

























COMPLAINT REPORT FORM 1.2 



66 



The Fede 



Section 5 
1 Communications Commission 




67 



CO 
09 




69 



FCC FIELD OFFICES 



Mailing addresses for Commission Field Offices are listed below. 
Street addresses can be found in local directories under "United States 
Government." 



FIELD ENGINEERING OFFICES 
Address all communications to Engineer in Charge, FCC. 



Alabama, Mobile 36602 

Alaska, Anchorage 99501 
(P.O. Box 644) 

California, Los Angeles 90014 
California, San Diego 92101 
California, San Francisco 94126 
California, San Pedro 90731 
Colorado, Denver 80202 

District of Columbia, 

Washington 20555 

Florida, Miami 33101 
(P.O. Box 150) 

Florida, Tampa 33606 
Georgia, Atlanta 30303 

Georgia, Savannah 31402 
(P.O. Box 77) 

Hawaii, Honolulu 96808 
Illinois, Chicago 60604 
Louisiana, New Orleans 70130 



Maryland, Baltimore 21202 
Massachusetts, Boston 02109 
Michigan, Detroit 48226 
Minnesota, St. Paul 55102 
Missouri, Kansas City 64106 
New York, Buffalo 14203 
New York, New York 10014 
Oregon, Portland 97205 
Pennsylvania, 

Philadelphia 19106 

Puerto Rico, San Juan 00903 
(P.O. Box-2987) 

Texas, Beaumont 77704 
(P.O. Box 1527) 

Texas, Dallas 75202 
Texas, Houston 77002 
Virginia, Norfolk 23510 
Washington, Seattle 98104 



70 



SECTION 5.0 

THE FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 
WASHINGTON, D. C. 20554 

5.1 The Federal Communications Commission is established un- 
der the provisions of Title 1 of the Communications Act of 1934. 
The Commission is composed of seven members appointed by the 
President and confirmed by the Senate. The President appoints 
one of the members as Chairman. 

5.2 In general, the Commission assigns frequencies in the different 
radio fields, licenses the radio stations and determines the oper- 
ating requirements of their transmitters, regulates overseas and 
long distance but not intrastate telephone and telegraph service, 
promotes the more effective use of radio with emphasis on its 
utilization to protect life and property, and harnesses radio and 
wire facilities for the national defense program. In this sense, 
the Commission Rules and Regulations provide for those radio 
services that will best promote and protect the public interest 
in matters relating to that portion of the public domain of the 
electromagnetic (frequency) spectrum that is within the Com- 
mission's jurisdiction. 

5.3 The radio frequency spectrum is an eletromagnetic phenomena 
that cannot be divided or allocated in a material sense. Yet, 
because it is universal in nature and its effects useful to man 
everywhere, it is the subject of international treaties and na- 
tional boundaries agreements. 

5.4 The frequencies allocated in the United States are jointly ad- 
ministered by the Commission and the Interdepartmental Radio 
Advisory Committee. The Committee (IRAC) is formed of 
representatives of the using agencies of the Federal Government 
and IRAC reserves approximately fifty percent of the frequencies 
to be allocated in the U. S. The remaining such frequencies are 
administered by the Commission. 

5.5 The Commission structure is divided into Bureaus and each 
of these branches perform technical, legal, and administrative 

functions with respect to a radio service or group of radio serv- 
ices, such as Broadcast, Aviation, Industrial, Public Safety, etc. 
The Public Safety Services are made up of several services, such 
as: Fire, Police, Forestry-Conservation, Highway Maintenance, 
Local Government, etc. Each service has its own assigned fre- 
quencies and particular rules. In some instances, however, pro- 
vision is made for two or more services to use the same frequen- 
cies. 

71 



5.6 The Commission's offices are headquartered in Washington, 
D. C., but it has many field offices throughout the states and it is 
through these offices that the Commission functions at the local 
level. These offices are largely concerned with inspection and 
each is headed by an Engineer-in-Charge. Officials of these of- 
fices monitor and inspect licensed operations within their re- 
spective areas. They also have responsibilities with respect to 
the detection and elimination of unauthorized operations and 
interference to radio communications. 

5.7 The above statements attest to the importance and scarcity of 
radio frequencies. It is because of the priceless value of these 
channels that the Rules and Regulations are established and 
enforced. The Commission allocates frequencies so as to provide 
for the public convenience and necessity and it does this by 
means of its Rules and Regulations. 

5.8 A better understanding of how and why the Rules are formu- 
lated affords a better understanding of the necessity for con- 
forming to their requirements. The following items in this sec- 
tion lists the most important operating Rules in the Public Safe- 
ty Radio Services. It is not intended here to cover all the Rules 
nor to quote them verbatim, nor is it likely that those Rules 
treated within will remain forever in effect since they are sub- 
ject to continuous review and modification; this is one reason 
why a copy of the Rules should be kept on hand. Write for 
Volume V of the Federal Communications Rules and Regula- 
tions to: Superintendant of Documents, U. S. Government Print- 
ing Office, Washington, D. C., 20402, and attach a money order 
in the amount of $2.50. Part 89 in Volume V contains the Rules 
for the Public Safety Radio Services. The station file should also 
contain a copy of Volume I of the Rules. This Volume contains 
Part 13 - Commercial Radio Operators, and Part 17 - Construc- 
tion, Marking and Lighting of Antenna Structures. This Volume 
is also ordered from the Superintendant of Documents and costs 
an additional $2.50. 

5.9 STATION LICENSE: 

A public safety radio station shall not be operated unless it is 
properly licensed by the Federal Communications Commission 
and the station license is posted or kept available as specified by 
the rules governing the particular service and/or class of station. 
Station licenses must be renewed prior to the expiration of such 
license as provided in the Rules and Regulations. 

The current authorization for each mobile station and each 
base or fixed station authorized to be operated at temporary 

72 



locations shall be retained as a permanent part of the station 
records, but need not be posted. In addition, an executed Trans- 
mitter Identification Card (FCC Form 452-C) or a plate of me- 
tal or other durable substance, legibly indicating the call sign 
and the licensee's name and address, shall be affixed readily 
visible for inspection, to each of such transmitters: Provided, 
That, if the transmitter is not in view of the operating position 
or is not readily accessible for inspection, then such card or plate 
shall be affixed to the control equipment at the transmitter 
operating position or posted adjacent thereto. 

The current authorization for each base or fixed station at a 
fixed location shall be posted at the principal control point of 
the station, and a photocopy of such authorization shall be post- 
ed at all other control points listed on the authorization. In ad- 
dition, an executed Transmitter Identification Card (FCC Form 
452-C) or a plate of metal or other durable substance, legibly 
indicating the call sign and the licensee's name and address, 
shall be affixed, readily visible for inspection, to each transmit- 
ter operated at a fixed location, when such transmitter is not in 
view of, or is not readily accessible to, the operator at the prin- 
cipal control point. 

5.10 OPERATOR REQUIREMENTS: 

A public safety radio telephone station during the course of 
normal rendition of service, on frequencies above 25Mh/z, may 
be operated by an unlicensed person, if authorized to do so by 
the station licensee, from a control point of a mobile, a base or 
fixed station, or, from a dispatch point of a base or fixed station. 

All transmitter adjustments or tests during or coincident with 
the installation, servicing, or maintenance of a radiotelephone 
station, which may affect the proper operation of such station, 
shall be made by or under the immediate supervision and respon- 
sibility of a person holding a first- or second-class commercial 
radio operators license, either radiotelephone or radiotelegraph, 
who shall be responsible for the proper functioning of the sta- 
tion equipment. 

The provisions of the Federal Communications Commission 
rules and regulations, authorizing certain unlicensed persons to 
operate certain stations, shall not be construed to change or 
diminish in any respect the responsibility of station licensees to 
have and to maintain control over the stations licensed to them, 
or for the proper functioning and operation of those stations in 
accordance with the terms of the licenses of those stations, 

73 



5.11 NATURE OF COMMUNICATIONS: 

Only such calls as are specifically authorized by the rules gov- 
erning stations in the public safety services may be transmitted. 

False calls, false or fraudulent distress signals, superfluous and 
unidentified communications, and obscene, indecent, and profane 
language, and the transmission of unassigned call signals are 
specifically prohibited. 

Stations in the public safety service are primarily authorized 
to transmit communications directly relating to public safety 
and the protection of life and property and communications es- 
sential to official public safety activities. 

5.12 SECRECY OF RADIO COMMUNICATIONS: 

The contents of a radio communication shall not be divulged 
to any person or party other than to whom it is addressed, ex- 
cept as specifically provided in Section 605 of the Communica- 
tions Act. 

5.13 PREVENTION OF INTERFERENCE: 

Inasmuch as most radio transmissions are conducted on radio 
channels which are shared among many stations, it is necessary 
that precautions be observed to avoid congestion and inter- 
ference. 

In order to avoid interference with communications in prog- 
ress, an operator shall listen on the frequency on which he in- 
tends to receive for a sufficient period to ascertain that he will 
be able to hear the station he is calling and that his transmis- 
sion will not cause interference. He shall not attempt to call if 
interference is likely to result. 

5.14 CONTENT OF STATION RECORD (LOG): 

For all base and fixed stations except those authorized to 
operate at temporary locations for unattended operation, the 
name or names of the persons (operators) responsible for the 
operation of the transmitting equipment each day, together with 
the period of their duty. Each such person shall sign, not initial, 
the record both when coming on and when going off duty. 

For stations whose antenna or antenna supporting structure 
is required to be illuminated, a record in accordance with the 
following: 

(1) The time the tower lights are turned on and off each 
day if manually controlled. 

74 



(2) The time the daily check of proper operation of the 
tower lights was made. 

(3) In the event of any observed or otherwise known fail- 
ure of a tower light: 

( I) Nature of such a failure. 

( II ) Date and time failure was observed, or other- 
wise noted. 

(Ill) Identification of the Flight Service Station 
(FAA) notified of the failure of any code or 
rotating beacon light or top light not correct- 
ed within 30 minutes, and date and time such 
notice was given. 

( IV) Date and time notice was given to the Flight 
Service Station (FAA) that the required illu- 
mination was resumed. 

5.15 FORM OF STATION RECORD: 

The records shall be kept in an orderly manner and in such 
detail that the data are readily available. Key letters or abbrevi- 
ations may be used if proper meaning or explanation is set forth 
in the record. 

Each entry in the records shall be signed by a person qualified 
to do so having actual knowledge of the facts to be recorded. 

No record or portion thereof shall be erased, obliterated, or 
willfully destroyed within the required retention period. Any 
necessary correction may be made only by the person originating 
the entry who shall strike out the erroneous portion, initial the 
correction made, and indicate the date of correction. 

5.16 RETENTION OF STATION RECORDS: 

Records required to be kept by this part shall be retained by 
the licensee for a period of at least one year. 

5.17 INSPECTION OF STATIONS: 

All stations and records of stations in these services shall be 
made available for inspection to a Commission representative at 
any time while the station is in operation or shall be made avail- 
able for inspection upon reasonable request of an authorized 
representative of the Commission. 

5.18 OPERATING PROCEDURE: 

Each station, unless otherwise indicated, shall transmit the 
assigned call sign at the end of each transmission or exchange of 

75 



transmissions, or once each 30 minutes of the operating period 
as the licensee may prefer. 

A mobile station, unless otherwise indicated, shall transmit an 
identification at the end of each transmission or exchange of 
transmissions, or once each 30 minutes of the operating period 
as the licensee may prefer. 

5.19 TRANSMITTER CONTROL REQUIREMENTS: 

Each transmitter shall be so installed and protected that it is 
not accessible to or capable of operation by persons other than 
those duly authorized by the licensee. 

A control point is an operating position which meets all of the 
following conditions: 

(1) The position must be under the control and supervision 
of the licensee; 

(2) It is a position at which the monitoring facilities are 
installed; and 

(3) It is a position at which a person immediately responsi- 
ble for the operation of the transmitter is stationed. 

A dispatch point is any position from which messages may be 
transmitted under the supervision of the person at a control 
point who is responsible for the operation of the transmitter. 
Dispatch points may be installed at an existing authorized sta- 
tion without added authorization. 

At each control point, the following facilities shall be installed: 

(a) A carrier operated device which will provide continuous 
visual indication when the transmitter is radiating; or, 
in lieu thereof, a pilot lamp or meter which will pro- 
vide continuous visual indication when the transmitter 
control circuits have been placed in a condition to pro- 
duce radiation: Provided however, That the provisions 
of this subparagraph shall not apply to hand-carried or 
pack-carried transmitters or to transmitters installed 
on motorcycles; 

(b) Equipment to permit the person responsible for the op- 
eration of the transmitter to aurally monitor all trans- 
missions originating at dispatch points under his super- 
vision; 

(c) Facilities which will permit the person responsible for 
the operation of the transmitter either to disconnect 
the dispatch point circuits from the transmitter or to 

76 



render the transmitter inoperative from any dispatch 
point under his supervision; and 

(d) Facilities which will permit the person responsible for 
the operation of the transmitter to turn the transmitter 
carrier on and off at will. 



5.20 Remember, DON'T allow a radio station to: 

1. Be operated by any person not holding a valid radio op- 
erator license or permit of the class prescribed in the 
rules and regulations of the Commission for the opera- 
tion of such station; 

2. Fail to identify itself at the times and in the manner pre- 
scribed in the rules and regulations of the Commission; 

3. Transmit any false or superfluous call contrary to regula- 
tions of the Commission; 

4. Operate on a frequency not authorized by the Commis- 
sion for use by such station: 

5. Interfere with any distress call or distress communica - 
tion contrary to the regulations of the Commission; 

6. Render a communication service not authorized by the 
Commission; 

7. Operate with a type of emission not authorized by the 
Commission; 

8. Operate with transmitting equipment other than that 
authorized by the Commission; 

9. Fail to respond to official communications from the 
Commission; 

10. Operate a control point that fails to indicate when the 
transmitter is on or one that does not have means to 
monitor and disable an associated dispatch point; 

11. Fail to keep a proper Log; 

12. Deny access to properly identified representatives of the 
FCC; 

13. Permit profane, indecent or obscene language; 

14. Willfully permit damage to radio equipment; 

15. Allow the interception, use or publication of the content 
of a radio message without permission of the proper 
authority; 

77 



16. Fail to exhibit a properly executed form 452-C (trans- 
mitter ID card) as required. 

5.21 Section 510 of the Communications Act of 1934 provides for- 
feiture for violation of most of the above DONT'S as follows: 

"The licensee of the station shall, in addition to any other 
penalty prescribed by law, forfeit to the United States a sum 
not to exceed $100. In the case of a violation of clause (2), (3), 
(5), or (6) of this subsection, the person operating such station 
shall, in addition to any other penalty prescribed by law, forfeit 
to the United States a sum not to exceed $100. The violation 
of the provisions of each numbered clause of the subsection shall 
constitute a separate offense; 

PROVIDED, that $100 shall be the maximum amount of for- 
feiture liability for which the licensee or person operating such 
station shall be liable under this section for the violation of the 
provisions of any one of the numbered clauses of this subsection, 
irrespective of the number of violations thereof, occurring within 
ninety days prior to the date the notice of apparent liability 
is issued or sent as provided in subsection (c) of this section: 
AND PROVIDED FURTHER, That $500 shall be the maximum 
amount of forfeiture liability for which the licensee or person 
operating such station shall be liable under this section for all 
violations of the provisions of this section, irrespective of the 
total number, thereof, occurring within ninety days prior to the 
date such notice of apparent liability is issued or sent as pro- 
vided in subsection (c) of this section. 

The forfeiture liability provided for in this section shall attach 
only for a willful or repeated violation of the provisions of this 
section by any licensee or person operating a station. 

No forfeiture liability under this section shall attach after the 
lapse of ninety days from the date of the violation unless within 
such time a written notice of apparent liability, setting forth the 
facts which indicate apparent liability, shall have been issued 
by the Commission and received by such person, or the Com- 
mission has sent him such notice by registered mail or by certi- 
fied mail at his last known address. The person so notified of 
apparent liability shall have the opportunity to show cause in 
writing why he should not be held liable and, upon his request, 
he shall be afforded an opportunity for a personal interview with 
an official of the Commission at the Field Office of the Com- 
mission nearest to the person's place of residence." 

78 



5.22 Section 501, Communications Act 1934, as amended states: 

"Any person who willfully and knowingly does or causes or 
suffers to be done any act, matter, or thing, in this Act prohibit- 
ed or declared to be unlawful, or who willfully or knowingly 
omits or fails to do any act, matter, or thing in this Act required 
to be done, or willfully and knowingly causes or suffers such omis- 
sion or failure, shall, upon conviction thereof, be punished for such 
offense, for which no penalty (other than a forfeiture) is pro- 
vided in this Act, by a fine of not more than $10,000 or by im- 
prisonment for a term not exceeding one year, or both; except 
that any person, having been once convicted of an offense 
punishable under this section, who is subsequently convicted of 
violating any provision of this Act punishable under this section, 
shall be punished by a fine of not more than $10,000 or by im- 
prisonment for a term not exceeding two years, or both." 

5.23 Section 502, Communications Act 1934, as amended states: 

"Any person who willfully and knowingly violates any rules, 
regulation, restriction, or condition made or imposed by the 
Commission under authority of this Act, or any rule, regulations, 
restriction, or condition made or imposed by any international 
radio or wire communications treaty or convention, or regula- 
tions annexed thereto, to which the United States is or may here- 
after become a party, shall, in addition to any other penalties 
provided by law, be punished, upon conviction thereof, by a fine 
of not more than $500 for each and every day during which such 
offense occurs." 

5.24 Title 18, Section 1464, United States Code Annotated is speci- 
fic on perhaps the Rule that, when violated, constitutes the 
most noxious of all transmissions and about which the Commis- 
sion is most particular: 

"Whoever utters any obscene, indecent or profane language 
by means of radio communication shall be fined not more than 
$10,000.00 or imprisoned not more than two years, or both." 



79 



Section 6 Law Enforcement Communications 



Y- =' 




81 



SECTION A6.0 

LAW ENFORCEMENT COMMUNICATIONS 
RADIO: 

A6.1 One of the major services in the Public Safety Radio group is 
the Police Radio Service. The police function is also exercised 
by other law enforcement agencies who do not employ the word 
"police" in the usual sense, such as sheriff departments, highway 
patrols, wildlife agencies, and even forestry, fire and highway de- 
partments as they discharge their responsibilities in "policing" 
and blocking off areas under their jurisdiction. 

A6.2 However, law enforcement as discussed in this section is that 
associated with crime in its usual sense: rape, theft, murder, 
traffic violation, etc. The apprehension of today's criminal re- 
quires fast and accurate communications between law enforce- 
ment agencies at all levels and on both the local and national 
scene. 

A6.3 This special section emphasizes the peculiar needs of law en- 
forcement communications techniques: to assist the smaller de- 
partment in making the proper approach to the larger system; 
to aid the larger department in wide-area and multi-station op- 
eration; and to suggest proven methods in nation-wide communi- 
cations. 

A6.4 Authority: 

A message which requires a law officer to perform a certain 
act should be based on the request of a department, or one quali- 
fied to act for a department, which has the legal authority to 
make the request. 

A6.5 The authority of a message is implicit in the signature of the 
message. The signature is always that of the originating depart- 
ment. 

A6.6 Message Form: 

A formal message is one constructed, transmitted and record- 
ed according to a standard prescribed form (see Sec. 4). A formal 
message should contain the following essential PARTS: 

1. Preamble - message number, point of origin or agency 
identifier, date. 

2. Address - to whom the message is directed. 

3. Reference - to previous message, if any. 

4. Text - the message. 

83 



5. Signature or Authority - department requesting the mes- 
sage. 

An informal message is one that is concerned with the routine 
matters of a department and that does not require a designation 
of authority other than that of rank or position. This type of 
message is not constructed nor recorded according to a prescrib- 
ed form. Most of the traffic in a system may be of this type 
message. 

A6.7 Types of Messages: 

1. Broadcast or Net Message: Directed to several extra- 
system stations or to all stations in a system. 

2. Dispatch. Value is limited in time and area, such as "At- 
tempt to Locate," "Weather Reports," etc. This type of 
message may be cancelled after a short period of time, or 
may be filed without further action, depending on the 
nature of the message. 

3. Directed Message. A message sent from one agency to an- 
other or from one station in a system to another specific 
station in that system. 

A6.8 Attempt to Locate Messages: 

"ATL" messages should be screened closely to eliminate those 
that are not definitely of an emergency nature. The information 
listed below should be included in "ATL" messages: 

1. Reasons for the "ATL": death message, serious illness in 
family, emergency change in military orders, long overdue 
at destination, etc. 

2. Full name of the person to be located (of help sometimes 
to know how many persons are traveling in the car. ) 

3. Information on the vehicle in which the person is travel- 
ing. 

4. Travel information: Point of departure, time of departure, 
routes of travel, destination, other pertinent information. 

5. Authority (must be a law enforcement agency). 

6. Instructions: should probably be "call home," or the loca- 
tion of the part of the traveling party who became sep- 

84 



arated from the group. If someone in the party has a sick- 
ness, this information should be included in the message. 

EXAMPLE: 

ATTEMPT TO LOCATE JOHN SMITH DRIVING 

WHITE OVER RED 65 FORD 

INDIANA LICENSE 11A5913 LEFT 

INDIANAPOLIS 0830 (2-25-67) ENROUTE TO CHICAGO 

VIA RTS 52 AND 41 ADVISE MR SMITH TO 

CALL HOME FOR DEATH MESSAGE 

AUTH S P INDIANAPOLIS IND RMM 1530 EST 

A6.9 Criminal Act Messages: 

The nature of the crime determines to a great degree where 
a criminal act message is sent, i.e., to those stations, depart- 
ments and states in the area affected. A statement must be 
made by the originating authority as to whether a warrant has 
been or will be filed. If for broadcast in other states, a statement 
Must Be Included That Extradition Will Be Made. This is for 
the protection of the arresting departments officers. This can 
be written as "WAREX." 

The progression of the criminal act message should be as 
follows: 

Charge Name 

Location Sex 

Time Race 

Date Age 

Height 

Weight 

Color of hair and eyes 
Complexion 
Physical marks 
Description of clothing 

(See Sec. 4 for Information Form) 



85 



If there is other information available it should be included 
(such as car being used, etc.). 

EXAMPLE: 

"WANTED FOR GRAND LARCENY 
WARRANT ON FILE WILL EXTRADITE 
(WAREX GRAND LARCENY) SEATTLE 
JULY 14 RICHARD E DOW M W 47 5-10 
185 BROWN HAIR AND BLUE EYES LIGHT 
COMPLEXION SCAR OVER LEFT EYE 
WEARING BLUE COAT WHITE SHIRT 
GREY TROUSERS TAN SHOES 

AUTH PD SEATTLE WASHINGTON AVH 1345 PST 
Omit any item which is not KNOWN. 

A6.10 Stolen Property: 

Stolen property messages are distributed in much the same 
manner as criminal act messages, i.e., to the areas affected. This 
type of message should include: 

Complaint (Grand Larceny, Breaking and Entering (B & E), 
etc.) 

Time and Date 

Article or list of identifiable articles followed by the descrip- 
tion or any other information helpful in recovery and proper 
identification. 

EXAMPLE: 

"STOLEN PHOENIX HIGH SCHOOL PHOENIX 
NIGHT OF MAY 12 ONE IBM TYPEWRITER 
ELECTRIC BLACK FINISH SERIAL 223 886" 
PD PHOENIX ARIZONA JJH 0015 MST 



A6.ll Missing Persons: 

Missing persons are a common problem of interest to all law 
enforcement agencies. Most departments consider juveniles and 
elderly persons as missing after 24 to 48 hours have passed. The 
in between age group of adults is difficult to cope with unless 

86 



the person is a suspect in a crime, suspected victim of foul play, 
demented, victim of amnesia or in ill health. 

EXAMPLE: 

"MISSING TAYLORVILLE ILLINOIS SINCE 2100 JULY 

14 JEAN DOE F W 15 5-2 BLONDE HAIR BLUE 

EYES LIGHT COMPLEXION MOLE ON RIGHT CHEEK 

BLUE PRINT DRESS TAN SHOES PARENTS WILL 

CALL 

AUTH SHF CHRISTIAN COUNTY ILL JAB 0915 CST 

A6.12 Persons and Property In Custody: 

When a message is being originated for any record or wanted 
on subjects, and for identification of recovered property, the 
complete information is of the utmost importance for positive 
identification. As much information as possible should be in- 
cluded in the first message, thus saving much lost motion and 
time in clearing the case. 

A6.13 Stolen Vehicles & License Plates: 

Lost or stolen license plates are normally broadcast only at 
the point of origin but should be cross-indexed in the stolen file. 
In theft cases involving states using two license plates indicate if 
both plates or only one was stolen. 

Cars (or any vehicle) or plates registered in one state but 
stolen in another should be reported to the state having register- 
ed the vehicle. 

The abbreviation "NSR" is nationally recognized as meaning 
"no stolen report." 

A6.14 Vehicle Identification: 

Vehicle registration / license information is generally similar 
in all states. The American Association of Motor Vehicle Ad- 
ministrators is meeting with success in getting all of the states 
to conform to certain standards. 

One of the most important things to furnish when checking 
license numbers interstate is the position of the dash in the 
license (some states use a design which should be referred to as 
a dash). This item is just as important as giving the correct 
license number. The position of the dash in several states in- 
dicates the issue of the license and it is therefore necessary in 
order to check the records. 

87 



All states are confronted with the expiration of licenses, and 
if a new registration is near, it is vital to include the year of 
issue. Otherwise, it might involve checking two years of regis- 
tration information or sending back the incorrect years in- 
formation and then having to check the other year. The NATB 
(National Auto Theft Bureau) book provides a list of license 
expiration dates for all of the states, colors of plates, and much, 
much more data that can be extremely valuable in vehicle iden- 
tification. 

When requesting registration / license information where it is 
also desired that the owner be contacted for disposition, infor- 
mation should be included with the original request as to the 
condition of the vehicle for driving and whom to contact for 
vehicle release. 

A6.15 National Auto Theft Bureau: 

The National Auto Theft Bureau, 100 Williams Street, New 
York, N. Y. 10038, maintains a stolen file by serial number on 
all cars belonging to its supporting agencies (various insurance 
companies). The bureau's New York office is listed in the TWX 
directory or may be contacted by mail or telephone. If it does 
not have a record of the serial number, it will trace the vehicle 
from the factory shipment to the present owner. When making 
a request to NATB New York all description and particulars 
about the vehicle should be furnished with the original request. 

The National Automobile Theft Bureau, Western Division, 
175 West Jackson Boulevard, Chicago, Illinois 60604, Phone 
312-922-0540 serves as a national clearing house for information 
on stolen vehicles, by vehicle identification number, assembled 
from NATB Divisional offices, and state and city police agencies. 
In addition, a microfilm record of factory assembly and shipping 
information on American made vehicles, beginning with 1960 
and some 1962 year models, is maintained. 

NATB Chicago will immediately institute tracing of any ve- 
hicle referred to them, using their factory file in the event no 
stolen report is found. NATB Chicago may be contacted by 
LETS, TWX, mail or collect telephone. When contacting NATB 
Chicago, all identification numbers should be furnished to facili- 
tate tracing. 

A6.16 U. S. Bureau of Public Roads: 

A relatively new section is being formed by the U. S. Bureau 
of Public Roads, Washington, D. C., in which the driving records 

88 



will be compiled from all of the states. These records may be ob- 
tained by telegram or letter to: 

Director of Audits & Investigations 
Matomic Building, Room 200 
1717 H Street, N. W. 
Washington, D. C. 

A6,17 Description of Vehicles (See Sec. A6. 28): 

Remember "CYMBALS" for automobile description when 
writing messages involving vehicles (Sec. 4). A more detailed 
breakdown on vehicle descriptions is as follows: 

1. Reported stolen 

2. Place stolen (name of town or area - street address is 
not necessary) 

3. Time and date stolen (between certain hours and dates, 
etc.) 

C 4. Color (two-tone should be listed as "white over red" 
multi-tone as "white over red over white," etc!) 

Y 5. Year of manufacture 

M 6. Make 

B 7. Body style 

AND 

L 8. License 

S 9. Serial/motor number (seldom broadcast on the net, but 
most departments cross index file on stolen cars and 
need the serial/motor number for this purpose.) 

10. Other data making identification easy. 

11. Owners name and address (seldom broadcast on the ra- 
dio net but should be available for the master file card 
and is required on a teletypewriter message. It is usually 
entered below the authority of the message." 

Precautions should be used to be certain that all informa- 
tion is correct. Incorrect Information Spells All Kinds of Trouble. 

A6.18 Vehicle Description (Detailed) : 

1. Description of stolen vehicles should be standardized as 
much as possible as to color information. On 2-color ve- 
hicles, give the top color, insert the word "over" and then 
the body color. If 3-colors, insert in descending order. 

89 



Example: White, over Black, over Blue. Always use 
primary colors. For this purpose primary colors are con- 
sidered as consisting of red, yellow, green, blue, brown, 
black, gray, aluminum, silver and white. Pastel shades of 
the primary colors are often used but this procedure is 
not recommended. Do not use descriptive terms such as 
"Robin-Egg Blue." 

2. When giving the year of the motor vehicle it should be 
remembered that all motor vehicles have been manufac- 
tured since 1900; therefore, it is not necessary to give the 
first two digits when describing the year of a motor 
vehicle. 

Example: Sixty-five, Dodge Dart, is sufficient to de- 
scribe the vehicle instead of using nineteen sixty-five, 
Dodge Dart. 

3. The make of the motor vehicle should consist of the manu- 
facturer's name. 

4. It is important when giving the body style of a motor 
vehicle to state whether "two-door" or "four-door," if 
enclosed bodies. Use the word "convertible" or "station 
wagon" when appropriate. Avoid the words "sedan" or 
"coupe." 

5. Because of the increase in the production of vehicles bear- 
ing trade names, or sub-names different than the name of 
the vehicle manufacturer, and inasmuch as these vehicles 
have distinctive shapes and silhouettes, it is important 
that the trade name or sub-name be given in description. 

Example: 

Plymouth Valiant, Barracuda 
Dodge Dart 
Buick Wildcat 

Ford Mustang, Thunderbird, Falcon 
Chevrolet Corvair, Chevelle, Chevy II, Corvette 
Pontiac Tempest 
Mercury Comet 

Oldsmobile Eighty-Eight, Ninety-Eight, Toronado 
A6.19 Abandoned or Apprehended Vehicles: 

It is very 5 important when checking on abandoned or appre- 
hended vehicles ,to give full information in the first message, 

90 



This would ordinarily consist of the following information: 

A. Color, year, make, body style, license and vehicle iden- 
* tification number (VIN). 

B. How long abandoned. 

C. Where found. 

D. Where held. 

E. Running condition. 

F. If any subjects are held, their complete description and 
any charges against them. 

G. Where subjects are held. 

H. If vehicle will be released to owner on proof of owner- 
ship. 

I. Current storage and towing charges. 

Failure to supply complete information will only result in con- 
fusion, delays and incorrect replies. 

A6.20 Additional Information and Corrections: 

Additional information, or corrections and information receiv- 
ed after an original message has been sent, should be transmit- 
ted in the same manner and to the same area as the original, 
along with the proper references to the original message. Nor- 
mally the same department which originated the message would 
be the originating authority on the added information or cor- 
rection. It is permissible, however, for other departments to add 
information under their own authority to the original message, 
such as the fact that the same person is wanted by them, etc. 

If the wanted message is originated by another state, then 
another department may refer to the message in which the sub- 
ject is listed as wanted, such as: 

Example: 

"SAME SUBJECT AS WANTED BY SP CUMBERLAND 
MARYLAND IN THEIR TELETYPEWRITER MESSAGE 
J-345 DATED JULY 15 1965" 



91 



A6.21 Cancellations: 

A message can be cancelled ONLY by the originating authori- 
ty, or by consent of the originating authority. The following are 
exceptions to the rule: 

1. When a message is a duplicate of another message already 
originated and broadcast. 

2. Lost or stolen license plates are automatically cancelled 
at the time of expiration. 

A message may be cancelled for any of the following reasons: 
Car recovered 
Suspect apprehended 
Property recovered 
Plates recovered 
Persons located 
Identification completed 
No longed wanted 
No further value 
Message in error 
Message in duplicate of previously filed message 

A message cancelled in error should not be reinstated but 
should be rebroadcast under a new message number. 

All departments should diligently try to cancel their messages 
as soon as possible. Partial cancellations should be given when 
one or more suspects described in a message have been appre- 
hended, or part of a list of stolen articles has been recovered. 
This can be done only by the originating authority or with per- 
mission to cancel given by them. 

Most departments maintain files in their identification and 
record bureaus. If any department inquires (by mail or message), 
regarding a message still active, it is to the advantage of every- 
one to clarify and answer the inquiry as soon as possible. There 
is always the chance that the inquiry might result in an appre- 
hension. If it is learned that the subject has already been appre- 
hended or is no longer wanted, and the original wanted message 
has not been cancelled, then it is the responsibility of the origi- 
nating authority to see that the proper cancellation or partial 
cancellation is originated. 

92 



A6.22 Use of Tone Signals: 

Many departments use certain groupings of tone signals pre- 
ceding a broadcast of traffic to designate the type of traffic in 
the message. The number of tones depends on the classification 
desired. 

A6.23 Daily Summary or Bulletin: 

Most departments originate some form of written summary of 
the net or master messages of their system for the day (major 
crimes, stolen cars, etc. ) These summaries are very useful to the 
policeman who has been off duty and wishes to review current 
messages. If someone has heard a message which he desires to 
read, the summary provides a quick reference for this purpose. 

A6.24 Weather & Road Conditions Report: 

Most departments compile unusual weather conditions occur- 
ring in their area such as snow, storms, sleet storms, floods, 
damaging winds, hail storms, severe thunder storms and torna- 
dos. Arrangements are normally made for release of this informa- 
tion to the news media. 

The United States Weather Bureau reports any unusual storm 
warnings so that their dissemination may be made to law en- 
forcement agencies. 

A6.25 Fingerprints: 

There are times when the Fingerprint Classification should be 
included in messages for purpose of identification when other- 
wise there may be some doubt. It is recommended that finger- 
print analysis be either included or used in lieu of fingerprint 
classification since several filing systems are in use (this rec- 
ommendation is used by the APCO-IACP TWX information 
directory). This is especially the case in regard to requesting 
wanted checks since the department searching its files may have 
several of the same or similar names and descriptions. 

As a matter of information, the National Uniform Crime Re- 
port manual as established by IACP and the FBI, comments on 
fingerprint classification as follows: 

To alleviate problems existent due to the various methods of 
fingerprint classifications, the following method is to be used in 
classifying fingerprints for entry into wanted persons format: 

The fingers will be considered beginning with the right thumb 

93 



as #1 and continuing through #10 with the left thumb being 
#6. Two characters will be used for each finger as shown below: 

Ulnar loops two numeric characters 

indicating ridge count 

Arch AA 

Tented arch TT 

Radial loop RR 

Inner whorl II 

Meeting whorl MM 

Outer whorl OO 

Missing fingers XX 

A6.26 Descriptions of Persons: 

Remember the "JOHN DOE" photo appearing elsewhere in 
this manual (Sec. 4). Omit items that are unknown. 

The National Uniform Crime Report manual states specifi- 
cally that Sex will be designated as "M" for male and "F" for 
female, and, that Race will be described by abbreviations used 
in the Uniform Crime Recording Program. 

Examples: 

White W 

Negro N 

Indian I 

Chinese C 

Japanese J 

All other 

Mexicans who are not defined as 
Indian, or other non-whites should 
be described as "W" 

Nationality should be entered when more pertinent or more 
discreet identifier than race alone is required. Example: Mexi- 
can - MM, Cuban - CC, etc. or indicate country or state of birth. 

94 



A6.27 Priority: 

In general, law enforcement messages should have the fol- 
lowing order of priority: 

1. Emergency. 

2. In Progress Criminal. 

3. Hit and Run. 

4. Stolen. 

5. Wanted. 

6. Missing. 

7. Routine Criminal. 

8. Attempt to Locate. 

9. Cancellations. 
10. Routine System. 

A6.28 Addenda: 

Last minute information from NCIC indicates the following re- 
quirements for printed inquiry involving automobile descrip- 
tion. Rather than modify existing procedure at this time is con- 
sidered more expedient to display both the established and the 
new in order that differences may be known and so as to stimu- 
late comment from the field as experience is gained: 



C4. Color - NCIC uses 7 character field. All colors have a 3 
letter code assigned and in the event the vehicle is two 
tone, the colors are separted with a slash, i.e., WHI/- 
BLK. If vehicle is a solid- color, 3 letters only are en- 
tered in the field. 

Y5. Year of manufacture - NCIC uses last 2 digits only. 
M6. Make - NCIC codes all makes and uses 4 letter field. 

B7. Body style - NCIC codes body style and uses 2 letter 
field. 

L8. License - All licenses are entered deleting hyphens and 
other symbols from number. 

S9 Serial/motor number - These numbers are also enter- 
ed deleting hyphens and other symbols. 

95 



A6.29 Remember: 



Will the message in itself be clear to those receiving it'. 
Have I included all message reference numbers and data? 
Does it clearly contain all of the information requested? 
Does it clearly state what action is to be taken? 

Have I included information regarding warrants on file? (Man- 
datory with interstate messages) 

Has extradition information been included? (Mandatory with 
interstate messages) 

Have the proper sequences been used on descriptions? 

Would your department accept this message without question 
when it was received? 



96 



SECTION B6.0 

LAW ENFORCEMENT COMMUNICATIONS 
TELETYPEWRITER 

B6.1 The national Law Enforcement Teletypewriter System 
(LETS) is a private teletypewriter system that is designed to 
interconnect the nation's law enforcement agencies for the 
prompt processing of state and interstate messages of a law en- 
forcement nature. The system uses common carrier land line 
circuits. 

B6.2 The LETS is comprised of approximately 4500 law enforce- 
ment organizations who process their teletype messages through 
a single communications center in each state served. These 
states communication centers are then interconnected through 
the national switching center in Phoenix, Arizona. 

B6.3 Rules: 

1. The success of LETS depends upon compliance with the 
orders and regulations governing its use. All regula- 
tions as set forth in this manual and in subsequent 
orders which may be issued from time to time, concern- 
ing the operation and maintenance of this system, must 
be followed in every detail. 

2. This system will not be used for personal business. 

3. Traffic over the teletype system must be in the prescrib- 
ed message form. 

4. Local time will be used. 

5. Teletype messages when authorized to be destroyed 
should be destroyed BY FIRE in order to prevent them 
from falling into the hands of unauthorized persons. 

6. Messages dispatched on the police teletype net must be 
on the authority of a duly constituted police agency. 

7. Cases in which the complainant is only interested in the 
recovery of property should not be dispatched unless a 
warrant is secured. This is for the protection of the ar- 
resting officer. 

8. Bulletins, publications, telegrams, etc., received from 
private detective agencies, bonding houses, bail bonds- 
men, etc., will not be dispatched over this system. 

97 



9. The contents of any message shall not be divulged to 
anyone other than one in an official capacity, unless so 
directed by the message. The utmost care must be exer- 
cised as practically all messages are of a confidential na- 
ture and for official information only, and should only be 
given to officials entitled to receive such information. 

10. Teletype instruments should be located in such a manner 
as to eliminate the possibility of unauthorized persons 
having access to message information. 

11. Teletype messages containing expressions such as "arrest 
and hold," "hold for investigation," "detain for this 
department/' "wanted as a suspect," etc., will not be 
accepted. The name of the crime upon which the message 
is based should be clearly specified. Also, it must be 
stated if warrant has been, or will be, issued. Messages 
which are to be transmitted to other states wherein an 
arrest is requested should state whether or not extradi- 
tion will be resorted to in case of apprehension. 

12. When a stolen car which has been reported over LETS is 
recovered it should not be released to any person until a 
cancellation has been received from the police agency 
that originated the message. 

13. Messages requesting the location of overdue persons 
should not be accepted except in cases of serious illness, 
death or other bona fide emergencies. 

14. The facilities of the police teletype net have been made 
available to military authorities for the purpose of re- 
porting the apprehension of deserters and other military 
personnel arrested and held by military police units. The 
military authorities have been advised that the system 
cannot be used for the transmission of administrative 
messages. 

15. Information which has been received by telegram, letter, 
or bulletin, calling for the apprehension of a criminal 
and requesting the alarm to be broadcast over the police 
teletype net, will be confined to the state receiving the 
information. This will prevent duplicate alarms calling 
for the arrest of a person or persons on the same crime. 

16. Cancellation .... A cancellation may only be sent by the 
station originating the alarm and must be under the 
same file classification, if used. It is very important that 

98 



all messages be cancelled as soon as they have served 
their purpose. 

17. Only under rare circumstances should a message be sent 
nation-wide (APB). No message should be sent beyond 
the local area or "circuit net" unless the text of the mes- 
sage contains definite information that requires "action" 
on the part of the station or area to which it is directed. 
Messages should list identifiable items only. 

18. Weather and road information shall be confined to com- 
munity of interest circuit or circuits and not be sent 
nation-wide. This information should not be sent routine- 
ly but only when adverse conditions exist or are immi- 
nent. 



B6.4 Procedure: 



1. While the majority of traffic handled by teletype consists 
of registration checks and directed messages, it provides 
a convenient means of delivering other types of messages 
such as net messages (stolen vehicles, etc.). 

2. However, it should be emphasized that in the event of an 
armed robbery, hit and run, recent car thefts and other 
types of criminal acts of recent occurrence, the information 
should first be broadcast on the radio for the benefit of 
patrol cars and on point-to-point for those stations who 
do not have teletype. After this has been done, it can then 
be put on the area teletype net. Traffic involving acci- 
dents, requests for ambulances and /or wreckers should 
also be given by radio. 

3. When originating a message involving the description of 
a person or vehicle, it is the responsibility of the origina- 
ting station to follow the"Standard Message Form" adopt- 
ed and approved by A.P.C.O: and I.A.C.P 

It is necessary that the originating station follow this pro- 
cedure because the messages received by each relay center 
are not retyped. When you originate a message a tape is 
cut for the purpose of relaying the message. This tape is 
put on a tape sending unit, and after coding in the de- 
sired agency or department, the tape actually sends the 
message. The relay center does not retype your message. 
The message, as sent by your department, is relayed word 
for word. It is important to use proper sequence structure 
and not insert anything extra in your message. After the 
tape has been once cut, it cannot be changed 



B6.5 Training: 

1. The Telephone Company will train the LETS operators in 
the physical operation of the teletype machine. This is nor- 
mally done before the start of service if the equipment is 
on the customer's premises. Retraining may be arranged 
for by calling the teletype consultant (collect) at a num- 
ber given to you by the telephone company. 

B6.6 Maintenance:. 

1. CPSC: Centralized Plant Service Center. 

2. CPSC is a centralized reporting center for all law enforce- 
ment teletype customers having critical special service 
circuits. CPSC will operate on a twenty-four hour, seven 
day per week basis. 

3. If you discover that your machine is out of order notify 
another teletype user on your circuit by radio, and request 
that they notify all users on your circuit that your ma- 
chine is out of order. As soon as your machine is back in 
order, notify all stations on your circuit that you are 
back in service. 

4. It is your responsibility to supply and change paper and 
ribbon when needed. 

5. Notify in advance all stations on the network that your 
teletype will be out of service when it is necessary to: 

1. Change paper 

2. Change ribbon 

3. Make a routine maintenance check 

6. When the above work is completed send another report 
that your machine is back in service. Failure to do so may 
result in your department missing a message. DO NOT 
USE SHORT-CUTS. 

7. The Telephone Company will inspect and service your 
teletype machine periodically. 

B6.7 Permissible Communications : 

1. Your teletype machine is leased by your department for 
communications essential to the official business of your 
department. Communications of a personal nature be- 
tween operators (non-departmental business) is forbidden, 

100 



B6.8 Message Services Available: 

1. Stations in the LETS System will deliver, free of charge, 
messages originated by law enforcement agencies and the 
National Auto Theft Bureau (NATB), to any law enforce- 
ment agency in the United States excluding Hawaii and 
Alaska. 

2. However, it should be pointed out that, when forwarding 
teletype messages, the State Point of Entry Stations act 
only as switching centers and do not edit or rearrange 
messages. 

3. Success of LETS depends on the compliance with orders 
and regulations governing its use which are established by 
the National Teletype Committee and approved by APCO 
and IACP. All regulations as set forth in this manual, and 
in subsequent orders which may be issued from time to 
time concerning the operation of this system, must be 
followed in every detail. 

4. When originating messages pertaining to wanted persons, 
information on one or more of the following items must 
be included in the text of the message, in addition to the 
normal information furnished: 

a. Warrant Information : 

Messages pertaining to persons wanted for criminal acts 
must state the specific crime for which the person is 
wanted and whether the warrant charge is a felony or 
a misdemeanor. 

b. Extradition Information: 

Messages directed to out-of-state agencies involving per- 
sons wanted for criminal acts must include the state- 
ment that they will be extradited if apprehended. 

c - Transportation Information: 

Messages dealing with persons wanted for non-criminal 
acts (missing persons, etc.) must contain the statement 
that transportation will be furnished 

B6.9 Message Construction: 

1. Every teletype message transmitted over the system must 
be in the prescribed form. It is realized that the forms 
must be flexible due to the conditions existing at the time 
a crime is committed, but it is believed that this proced- 
ure will assist every police department in the performance 

101 



of its duty, and minimize the danger of unnecessary delay 
in handling the original message, as well as reduce the 
need for added information and replies. It will also give 
the maximum protection to the police officer when he acts 
on the information received over the teletypewriter system. 

2. Standard message form (Approved by APCO & I AGP) 
3 PD SAN DIEGO CALIF 2-24-66 

PD UTICA NEW YOEK 
ARMED ROBBERY 

0700 PST 2-23-66 VANS MARKET 2230 OCEANSIDE 
BLVD THIS CITY SUSPECT JOHN WILLIAM 
MORRIS M/W DOB 2-23-27 5-8 185 BROWN HAIR 
BLUE EYES DRIVING BLUE 65 FORD MUSTANG 
CALIF JJJ 123 VIN 5F07A139076 BELIEVED 
ENROUTE TO 1234 SOUTH HARMONY AVE. YOUR 
CITY WAREX FELONY 

SGT J D BEALE 

PD SAN DIEGO CALIF JWM 0824PST 

3. Heading: 
Line 1 

Item 1 - Message Number - Each message transmitted 
should bear an identifying message number. 

Item 2 - Name of originating department (AHP) 
(CAL) (If file number is used it "shall be in- 
serted in space between number and name of 
originator). 

Item 3 - Date message is transmitted (use number to 
signify month) (2/20/66). 

Item 4 - If message is an added information, correc- 
tion, reply or cancellation, the proper words 
must be typed after date to identify the type 
of message. 

Line 2 

Item 1 - Destination - This directs the message to its 
proper point. If the originator wants the mes- 
sage to be sent to all points on the system, 

102 



the message is sent APB. If to a particular 
point, he designates by name the department 
he wishes the message sent, e.g., PD Roanoke, 
Va. 

If the sender wishes to dispatch a message 
to an agency or department and he is not 
sure of its location or if it is associated with 
the system, he should dispatch the message 
to that agency by name, e.g., PD Leipsic, N.J. 
Then send to the State Point of Entry for re- 
lay or to the closest station on the system 
requesting the message to be forwarded to the 
addressee. 



LineS 

Item 1 - Reference - Applicable only when there has 
been previous traffic on the same subject. List 
the original message numbers of both sending 
and receiving stations, and the dates messages 
were transmitted. File (stolen car) if appli- 
cable. 



4. Body of Message: 

Complete description and other pertinent information. 
Be brief, but give complete details and action requested. 

A. Crime 

B. Time and location of crime (24 hour time identify 
time zone - EST, MST, CST) 

C. Name of person wanted or missing in cases of motor 
vehicles - tag numbers 

D. Descriptions - Persons, motor vehicles, property 

E. Warrant and extradition. Provide warrant number. 

5. NOTE: Description of Persons - The APCO description 
form includes the following: Sex, Race, Age, Height, and 
Weight, abbreviated M-W-30-5-6-175 followed by Hair, 
Eyes, Complexion, Build, Scars and Marks, and Clothing 
from head to foot (See Sec. 4). 

6. Description of Motor Vehicles - The APCO standard de- 
scription form describes motor vehicles in the following 
order: color, year, make, body style, license number and 
motor or serial number (See Sec. 4). 

103 



7. Warrant - Messages dealing with wanted persons should 
state the specific crime for which the individual is wanted, 
and whether charge is a felony or misdemeanor. The ab- 
breviation Warex should appear at the end of the text. 

8. Extradition - Each message dealing with wanted persons 
should include a statement regarding extradition. 

9. Last Line - Conclusion 

Item 1 - Authority - The complete name of the depart- 
ment. 

Item 2 - Last name or initials of dispatcher 

Item 3 - Time - Use the 24 hour clock system and in- 
clude time zone, e.g., 1730EST or 1730CST, 
etc. Day light saving time - 1730EDT or 
1730CDT 

10. In all teletype messages the following spacing is required: 



Example: 

743 SP CHARLESTON W VA 4-10-65 ADDED 

APB 

REF 736 3-31-65 GB JOHN BROWN 

SUBJECT WEARING GRAY HAT - BROWN SHOES 

DRIVING DK GREEN 63 BUICK SEDAN NJ 

LICENSE UNKNOWN - BELIVED ENROUTE TO 

NEW YORK CITY OR HOBOKEN NJ SUBJECT IS 

DIABETIC AND WILL REQUIRE TREATMENT 

FELONY WAREX 

SP CHARLESTON W VA FLANAGAN 0945EST 

11. First Line 

a. Three spaces between message number and station 
name (If file number is used insert between number 
and name utilizing same spacing) 

b. Three spaces between station name and date 

c. One space between date and message classification 

104 



12. Second Line 

a. Addressee or APB 

13. Third Line 

a. If the message refers to a previous message, the third 
line shall be started two lines below the address, and 
give the reference information, i.e., message number, 
file number, if used, date the message was dispatched, 
leaving one space between each. 

Body of Message - A brief concise message without 
paragraphs. 

14. Last Line 

a. The last line will be started two lines below the body 
of the message. 

b. Three spaces between the authority and the opera- 
tor's last name or initials. 

c. Three spaces between operator's name and time sent. 

15. The following spacing is required for all teletype messages: 
First line (Preamble) 

a. Three spaces between the message number and the 
station identifier. 

b. Three spaces between the station identifier and the 
date. 

Second line (address) (started two lines below the pre- 
amble) 

Third line (Text or body of message). (Started two lines 
below the address.) 

a. If the message refers to a previous message the first 
line of the text should contain the preamble of the 
previous message. 

The text of the message should be single line spaced 
and should be brief and concise without paragraphs. 

Last line (Authority and Operator Service) (Started two 
lines below the text). 

a. Three spaces between the authority and the operator's 
last name or initials. 

b. Three spaces between operator's service and time sent. 



105 




Section 7 Civil Defense Communications 



107 




o* 



109 



SECTION 7.0 
CIVIL DEFENSE COMMUNICATIONS 

7.1 The national Civil Defense organization operates under the 
office of the Secretary of the Army. 

7.2 The national Civil Defense structure is divided into Regions, 
each of which serves a number of states. The national structure 
terminates at the state level, each state being individual units 
separate from the national organization. 

7.3 Each state has an Office or Department of Civil Defense es- 
tablished by some form of State legislation or administrative 
order. The State CD Offices have a master plan of survival that 
is complementary to the Region plan on the national level and 
to the state subdivision plans on the local level. 

7.4 Two important functions of the state offices are those of plan- 
ning and supply. Their plans are so drawn as to utilize the cap- 
abilities of existing state agencies and political subdivisions in 
a manner that the every day activities of these entities are best 
coordinated to meet the sudden demands of state or national 
disaster. 

7.5 Public Safety communications are the nerve center of the 
state Civil Defense effort, especially to the extent that they 
furnish a back-up service to the normal means of communica- 
tions. Public Safety Communications are thus an existing, func- 
tioning, organized communications capability that is in daily 
use and that can be immediately utilized to consolidate, coordi- 
nate, and unify the survival efforts and facilities of the Public 
Safety agencies for Civil Defense purposes. 

7.6 One of the most important CD responsibilities of Public Safety 
communications is that of disseminating initial attack warnings 
and subsequent condition reports. Attack warnings originate 
in the North American Air Defense Command (NORAD) and 
warning messages are transmitted over the National Warning 
System (NAWAS) to designated warning points that are lo- 
cated at several strategic points in each state. The Public Safety 
communications systems receive warning messages from these 
key warning points. In some instances they are received by relay 
rather than direct. 

7.7 There are possibilities of errors being made during the trans- 
lation of state CD messages as they leave the CD system and 
enter the state Public Safety systems since CD terminology and 
Public Safety terminology are usually not alike. 

Ill 



7.8 There is also the possibility of error in the interchange of CD 
communications between Public Safety systems where proce- 
dures are unknown or too dissimilar. 

7.9 One of the purposes of this manual is to assist in the reduction 
of these errors of translation. As more Public Safety agencies 
adopt these recommended procedures, a more common ground is 
obtained upon which to approach the state offices of Civil De- 
fense for mutual training purposes. It is recommended that the 
Public Safety communications services make it a particular 
practice to invite CD personnel to their communications training 
seminars. Civil Defense personnel are urged to make every effort 
to adopt more of these procedures into their every day routine 
communications so that their terminology may be more com- 
patible with the requirements of the Public Safety services. 

7.10 Section 89.17 of the FCC Rules reads as follows: 

"A station licensed under this part may transmit communi- 
cations necessary for the implementation of civil defense activi- 
ties assigned such station by the local civil defense authorities 
during an actual or simulated emergency, including drills and 
tests: PROVIDED, That such communications relate to the 
activity or activities which form the basis of the licensee's eligi- 
bility in the radio service in which authorized." 

This requirement is considered to be met in the sense that the 
enabling act that establishes a state office of Civil Defense is one 
of a Public Safety nature. As such, when a civil defense function 
has been assigned to a Public Safety department by competent 
authority in an established civil defense operational plan, the 
accomplishment of that function becomes 'an official activity' 
of the department concerned and the department's radio system 
may be utilized in such accomplishment. 

The foregoing is not construed, however, to permit the com- 
plete pre-emption of a department's radio system for civil de- 
fense purposes if the department has remaining a legal responsi- 
bility for the discharge of duties not contained in the civil de- 
fense plan. Further it is noted that, except in the Local Govern- 
ment and some areas of the Special Emergency Radio Services, 
civil defense activities alone do not constitute radio service 
eligibility. 



112 



CONCLUSION 

In this jet age nothing is as important as fast and accurate com- 
munications. Language is a barrier to any form of information ex- 
change. This manual teaches a common language in the form of pre- 
scribed methods and signals which, if universally adopted, would mean 
a substantial increase in Public Safety departmental efficiency and 
interdepartmental cooperation. 

The success of this manual rests upon voluntary compliance. Volun- 
tary effort is based upon desire and there is no doubt in the minds of 
the writers of this manual but that every Public Safety agency de- 
sires improved communications ability both internal and external. It 
is hoped that this manual will be the causal means of the desire for 
the required effort. 

One more thing needs to be said. An end requires a means and in 
the world of Public Safety radio the end of two-way radio requires the 
means of the radio frequency spectrum.* As pointed out in Section 5, 
the spectrum is public domain, like the air we breathe. It cannot be 
bought and sold in the market place like the hardware and right-of- 
ways of land line circuits. As a radio frequency user, each Public Safety 
Department should, and must be, initially and continuously concerned 
with the welfare of the spectrum. 

The frequency spectrum is finite. There are just so many frequen- 
cies available and the competition for them is fierce. Nearly every 
frequency now being used in the Public Safety Radio Services, yours 
included, has been viewed and passed upon for technical adequacy and 
practical application by public safety communications employees who 
serve as National Frequency Coordinators. These people donate their 
services in order that your radio system may operate at its best effi- 
ciency and be as well protected from interference as the present fre- 
quency congestion permits. 

These people, and the organizations to whom they belong, deserve 
your support. You should be familiar with, and participate in, those 
voluntary national communications organizations that work for your 
benefit. You need to be advised, for some day if you should need a 
frequency, and none is to be had, ignorance of the cause of that lack 
will be no excuse. The Federal Communications Commission works to 
protect your communications interests as well as the interest of others 
and their offices are open every working day. You, or your representa- 
tive, should know the way to the doors. 

The Office of Law Enforcement Assistance is anxious to help in 
law enforcement communications matters of exhibited value. APCO is 
anxious to assist you in any Public Safety communications matter. 

That is our purpose. 
113 



ABBREVIATIONS 

APB - All points bulletin 

ATL - Attempt to locate 

ATTN - Attention 

AUTH - Message sent on authority of 

BLK - Black 

BRO - Brown 

C - Chinese 

CANCEL . Cancellation 

CAPT - Captain 

CDC - Call directing code 

COL . Colonel 

COMM - Commissioner 

COMP - Complexion 

CP -Chief of Police 

CPL - Corporal 

CC - Cuban 

DEFY - Deputy 

DET - Detective 

DIR - Director 

DISP -Disposition 

DK . Dark 

DL - Driver's License 

DOA - Dead on arrival 

DOB -Date of birth 

ETA - Estimated time of arrival 

F - Female 

FILE - File Classification Number 

FPA - Fingerprint analysis 

GA - Go Ahead 

HP - Highway Patrol 

I - Indian 

ID - Identification 

INSPR - Inspector 



115 



J - Japanese 

OLN - License Number 

LIEUT - Lieutenant 

M - Male 

M/SGT - Master Sergeant 

MM . Mexican 

MED - Medium 

MTR - Motor 

N -Negro 

- All other 

OCA - Originating Station Case Number (computer) 

OFR - Officer 

OPR - Operator 

PD - Police Department 

PTL - Patrolman 

REF - Refer to message 

ROIR - Reply only if record 

SER - Serial 

SGT - Sergeant 

SO - Sheriffs Office 

SHRF - Sheriff 

SP - State Police 

S/SGT - Staff Sergeant 

SUPT - Superintendent 

TPR - Trooper 

T/SGT - Technical Sergeant 

TT - Teletype 

TX - Land line telephone 

VIN - Vehicle Identification Number 

W -White 

WAREX - Warrant issued, will extradite 

WX - Weather 

NOTE: If in doubt, do not abbreviate. Spell out the complete word. 



116 



DEFINITIONS 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT - The act by which one operator signifies to 
another that a message has been received. 

ADDED INFORMATION MESSAflF. - A message sent to supplement 
a previous message and referred thereto. 

ADDRESS - The name of the department to which a message is di- 
rected or sent. It follows the preamble in the message format and it is 
-placed two lines below the preamble, 

AUTHORITY - The Department responsible for the origination of a 
message. 

BELL SIGNAL - The teletypewriter bell used to attract attention to 
the instrument for messages of extreme importance. 

BROADCASTS - 

(a) BROADCAST - The transmission of a message to the coded area 
concerned. 

(b) DIRECT MESSAGE - A message addressed to a specific point 
or points on the system. 

(c) APB - A message direction indicating that the message is to be 
sent to all points. 

CANCELLATIONS - A message which cancels another, without delay. 
CARRIER - Radio wave radiated by a transmitter without modulation. 

CALL DIRECTING CODE - Usually a two letter identifier assigned 
to a teletype machine. Required to be transmitted in order to turn on 
a teletype unit. 

DATA - Request for full registration information, stolen or wanted 
on the following license or VIN (Vehicle Identification Number). 

GAIN CONTROL - A control to vary the amount of modulation of a 
radio transmitter. The volume control on a receiver is also called a 
gain control. 

GO AHEAD - Used as an invitation for the other station to reply 
when carrying on a two-way conversation between two stations. 

MESSAGE NUMBER - The first part of the preamble. The number 
used to identify a message from all others sent by a station. 

MESSAGE TIME - The figures placed on a message after the sender 
to indicate the time the message was sent. 

MIKE - Microphone. 

MODULATION - Strength of your voice applied to the microphone. 

117 



MONITOR - Listen to a radio receiver. 
OPERATOR - Any person who transmits a message. 

ORIGINAL MESSAGE - A message to which any subsequent message 
on the same subject must be referred and attached. 

PHONE TRAFFIC - Messages handled by radiotelephone. 

PREAMBLE - The first line of a communication. It contains the mes- 
sage number, station identifier and date. Used as the reference when 
replying to a previous message. 

REFERENCE NUMBER - Used to identify a previous message. It is 
placed in the first line of the text and consists of the message number, 
file number if used, station identifier, and date of original message. 

SENDER - The surname or initials of the operator who originally 
transmits a message. 

SERVICE - Servicing a message means entering on the message the 
time and date sent or received, station received from, or to whom sent 
and the operator's initials. For teletype messages it means the time 
sent and operator's initials. 

SPEAKER - Device that produces sound from your radio receiver. 

SQUELCH CONTROL - The control to eliminate receiver noise when 
no signal is being received. It should be set to just eliminate this noise. 
Turning it further will reduce the receiving range of the receiver. 

STATION IDENTIFIER - The radio station FCC assigned call sign. 
Used in the preamble following the message number in a radio mes- 
sage. In a teletype message it is an abbreviation of the station's name. 

TEXT - The body of a message. That portion of a message that con- 
tains the information being transmitted from one department to an- 
other. Started two lines below the address. 

TRAFFIC - A message, or communications between stations. 
TT - Teletype. Sometimes called PLTT for private line teletype. 

TWX - A teletypewriter exchange service which is furnished on sub- 
stantially the same basis as long distance telephone service. 

UNIT IDENTIFIER - An identifier assigned by the licensee to a mo- 
bile station for exact identification as "Car 3" or "797", etc. Not 
same as or eliminating need for the FCC assigned station identifier 
or call sign. 



118 




APPENDIX A 

Reprinted from The APCO Bulletin 



An "I" for an "I" does not consti- 
tute justice in radio communica- 
tions. 

Section A3.33 of the Manual 
touches on this matter of being im- 
personal on the air. This, too, is an 
acquired art which requires prac- 
tice, for all of us are guilty of the 
desire to use "I" more than any 
other pronoun in the language. 

Again, the object of this require- 
ment is to promote, or enhance, the 
total system rather than any of its 
parts; to avoid clouding the central 
thought of the transmission by per- 
sonal coloration, to lessen the 
chance of destroying the meaning 
of the message as intended by the 
originating authority, to play down 
people and play up accuracy and 
speed of action, to avoid familiarity. 

Perhaps one of the best methods 
of constructing a neuter gender for 
the system is to substitute a Ten 
Signal for "I." For example, instead 
of "I will do it," substitute "10-4." 
Instead of "I don't think so," say 
"10-74." Instead of "I'll make the 
phone call" say, "Will 10-21;" 
rather than "Shall I contact Unit 
99" say, "10-4 to 10-68 Unit 99?" 

Dropping the "I" requires de- 
voted practice, as does learning how 
to delete words from a rambling 
communication and thus convert it 
into a terse, solid- message that 
fairly reeks with skill, training, or- 
ganization, and authority. You'll 
have to work at this, and if you 
reatty know your Ten Signals you 
will have no undue difficulty. 

Section A3.34 is a sequel to the 
above discussion: since we labor to 

26 



FROM THE 

OPERATING POINT 

(A continuing seminar based on the APCO Operating Procedure Manual 
- 16,000 printed to date) 



avoid the familiar "I," we should 
in the same context endeavor to 
avoid assuming or implying famili- 
arity with others. Never, never, 
never communicate on the air with 
mobile units and use names, especi- 
ally first names, unles you are com- 
municating about other than the 
mobile unit operator; in this case, 
use titles or proper names - no mat- 
ter how well acquainted you may 
be with the person in question. You 
are engaged in formal communica- 
tions. 

In order to blanket the above dis- 
cussions within one concept, per- 
haps we can make use of semantics 
and state that there is a difference 
between "talking" and "communi- 
cating" in the sense that, orally, 
you must talk in order to communi- 
cate but that you do not always 
communicate when you talk, and 
that when you talk you can be in- 
dulging in any form of oral contact 
but that when you communicate 
you are engaged in a specific and 
informational means of audible con- 
tact that most explicitly excludes 
any and all vague facets of "visit- 
ing," and which most emphatically 
attempts to omit any inclusion of 
the radio operator himself. 

Sections A3.35 - 6 should be con- 
sidered in concert and in examining 
them we find a definite similarity 
between the first phrases of the 
first sentences of each: "Never 
change a single word in a formal 
message -" and "A station originat- 
ing a formal message -." 

Just what is a "formal" message? 
A formal message is one which has 
been "formed" from a mass of re- 
lated information in accord with a 
prescribed procedure, or, a formal 
message is one which has been "re- 
duced" or "composed" from a mass 
of related information and placed 
on a prescribed form. Either way 
you look at it, it means the same 
thing. The basic concept is order: 
A formal message is one which is 
transmitted and received in a pre- 
scribed order or succession of in- 
formation bits. A formal message is 
one which a receiver can anticipate 
in a routine fashion. 

BULLETIN February, 1968 



A printed message form is the 
typical method for establishing the 
information in a prescribed routine 
manner and this is one manner in 
which a message is different from 
a transmission. We are here again 
threatened with semantic shadings 
but perhaps it is sufficient to state 
that while one transmission may be 
a (short) message it is normally to 
be expected that a message will be 
composed of several transmissions, 
and, a transmission can be other 
than a portion of a formal (com- 
posed) message. A transmission is 
made any time the transmitter is 
placed on the air, a message is the 
total information placed on the air 
in a prescribed manner by means 
of one or more transmissions. 

Never change a single word in a 
formal message which is received 
for relay purposes! This require- 
ment embodies another attempt to 
exclude the "I's" of the system. 
Don't color the message with what 
you think! Let it be received at its 
destination in its pure form. How- 
ever, if you are convinced that the 
message is in error, originate your 
own message to follow the first mes- 
sage, safe in the knowledge that it, 
too, will reach its destination with- 
out being colored by what some later 
operator down the line may "think" 
about what you "thought" about the 
first message. By this method the 
first message will be received in its 
unadulterated form and the termi- 
nal station will be afforded the. 
means of making a judgment be- 
tween it and your subsequent mes- 
sage. If you color the first message 
you deny the destination station 
that right. 

Think twice before you submit 
your thoughts on a message. Be 
sure you know what the message 
really means before you act; many 
messages are in reality "key 
phrases" that connect or complete 
information that is in the minds 
only of the originator and the re- 
ceiver of the message. In other 
words, it is probable that these 
people know something that you 
don't know. 
(Next month - MESSAGE FORMS) 



A-l 



APPENDICES B THROUGH F 

Title pages and tables of content for five training 
guides and manuals produced and/or published with 
Law Enforcement Assistance Act support appear in the 
following pages. Inquiries regarding availability of 
these publications should be made to the respective 
grantees. 



A-3 



APPENDIX B 
LEAA GRANT 204 



MANUAL FOR POLICE 




In the State of New York 



NELSON A. ROCKEFELLER 
GOVERNOR 



ARTHUR CORNELIUS, JR. 

Superintendent of State Police 




Prepared and published by the New York State Police 

as a service to Law Enforcement in the 

State of New York 

New York State Police, Public Security Building 
State Campus, Albany, N. Y. 12226 

September 1, 1967 



Manual Number 

A~5 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



Section Title of Section Page 

1. References and Citations 1 

2. New York State Police 2 

3. Civics and Government 4 

4. Police Records 5 

5. Police Administration 8 

6. Public Relations 10 

7. The New Penal Law 16 

8. Culpability, Parties to Crime 22 

9. Classification of Offenses 26 

10. Disposition of Offenders 28 

11. Defenses and the Use of Force 33 

12. Courts and Court Procedure 40 

13. Informations 46 

14. The Grand Jury and Indictment 48 

15. Proceedings After Indictment 49 

16. Family Court Act 49 

17. Procedures Re Children and Youths 51 

18. Arrests and Bail 55 

19. Abortion and Related Crimes 79 

20. Accidents 81 

21. Adultery 93 

22. Advertisements 94 

23. Aircraft 97 

24. Alcoholic Beverage Control Law 99 

25. Animals (Including Rabies) 104 

26. Arson and Fires 113 

27. Assault, Menacing, Reckless Endangerment 122 

28. Attempts 129 

29. Attorneys 130 

30. Auctioneers 133 

31. Bad Checks and Forged Checks 134 

32. Bigamy 139 

33. Billiard and Pocket Billiard Rooms 141 

34. Bribery and Related Crimes 143 

35. Burglary 153 

36. Canals 159 

37. Carnivals, Circuses and Fairs 160 

38. Children 162 

39. Civil Rights 171 

40. Communications 176 

[v] 



A- 6 



Section Title of Section Page 

41. Compounding a Crime; Compromise of Crime 198 

42. Conservation Law 200 

43. Conspiracy 201 

44. Corporate Official Misconduct 203 

45. Creating a Hazard 204 

46. Criminal Anarchy 205 

47. Criminal Contempt 206 

48. Criminal Facilitation 207 

49. Criminal Mischief and Reckless Endangerment of Prop- 

erty 209 

50. Criminal Nuisance 213 

51. Criminal Solicitation 215 

52. Criminal Tampering 217 

53. Criminal Trespass 219 

54. Disorderly Conduct, Harassment and Loitering 223 

55. Dangerous Drugs 228 

56. Election Laws 241 

57. Endangering Incompetent 246 

58. Escape and Detention Facilities 246 

59. Explosives and Bombs 249 

60. Extortion and Coercion 260 

61. False Insurance Claims 266 

62. False Written Statements 267 

63. Federal Crimes 272 

64. Fingerprints and Identification 275 

65. Firearms and Weapons 282 

66. Fireworks 303 

67. Forgery and Slugs 305 

68. Fortune Telling 313 

69. Frauds 314 

70. Gambling 327 

71. Highways 338 

72. Hindering Prosecution 341 

73. Homicides 343 

74. Hotels, Motels, Other Temporary Residences 353 

75. Impersonation 356 

76. Incest 361 

77. Intoxication 362 

78. Investigations *. 366 

79. Junk Dealers 396 

80. Kidnapping and Custodial Interference 397 

81. Laboratory Examinations 402 

82. Larceny 406 

83. Lost and Found Property 424 

[vi] 



A-7 



Section Title of Section Page 

84. Marriage Violations 428 

85. Mental Hygiene Law 430 

86. Misapplication of Property 432 

87. Navigation Law 433 

88. Obscenity and Pornography 453 

89. Observation and Patrol 457 

90. Obstructing Governmental Administration 464 

91. Offensive Exhibitions 465 

92. Official Misconduct 466 

93. Party Lines 468 

94. Pawnbrokers 468 

95. Peddlers 470 

96. Perjury and Sworn False Statements 472 

97. Physicians and Dentists 475 

98. Private Investigators 478 

99. Prostitution 478 

100. Public Health 484 

101. Public Lewdness and Exposure 487 

102. Public Safety 489 

103. Railroads and Railroad Police 491 

104. Refusing to Aid a Peace Officer 493 

105. Rape 494 

106. Report Writing and Handling 497 

107. Riots and Unlawful Assembly 503 

108. Road Blocks 506 

109. Robbery 508 

110. Sabbath Laws 511 

111. School and School Buses 513 

112. Search and Seizure 517 

113. Sepulture (Dead Bodies and Graves) 531 

114. Sex Offenses (Including Sodomy) 534 

115. Stolen Property 538 

116. Subpoenas 541 

117. Suicide 542 

118. Theft of Services 544 

119. Traffic 550 

121. Unauthorized Use of a Vehicle 559 

122. Unlawful Imprisonment 561 

123. Unlawful Disclosure 562 

124. Usury 563 

125. Tax Laws 565 

126. Wanted Persons 570 

127. Descriptions Persons or Property 573 

128. Religious Services Disrupting or Disturbing 576 

[vii] 



A-8 



APPENDIX C 
LEM GRANT 081 



Handbook 

for 
Law Enforcement Officers 



Prepared by the 
Kansas Peace Officers Handbook Committee 

Published by the 

League of Kansas Municipalities 

112 West Seventh Street 

Topeka, Kansas 

AUGUST, 1966 



This book is the property of 



and is for official use only 



A- 9 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Chapter 

FOREWORD u 

CODE OF ETHICS iv 

I. THE LAW ENFORCEMENT OFFICER... 1 

II. GENERAL RULES OF CONDUCT 5 

Responsibility 5 

Discipline 5 

Courtesy 6 

III. JURISDICTION 10 

Types of Offenses 10 

Federal Violations 10 

State Law Violations 11 

City Ordinance Violations 11 

Multiple Violations by One Act 11 

Juvenile Offenders 12 

IV. CRIMINAL PROCEDURE 13 

State 13 

City 14 

V. CRIME PREVENTION 15 

Practical Crime Prevention Activities 16 

Suggested Methods of Educating the Public 16 

VI. NOTE TAKING 17 

Purpose 17 

Basic Rules 17 

Suggestions on What to Include 17 

VII. REPORT WRITING 19 

Contents of a Good Report 19 

Complaint Reports 20 

Investigative or Offense Reports 21 

Accident Reports 21 

Summons and/or Arrests 22 

VIII. ARREST 23 

Defined: What Constitutes Arrest 23 

Official Inquiry; Request for Display of 

Driver's License ; Not Arrest 23 

General Duties in Making Arrest 23 

Time of Arrest 24 

Persons Authorized to Issue Warrants 

for Arrest 24 

Procedure for Issuance of Warrant for Arrest 24 

Arrest with a Warrant 24 

Authority to Arrest Without a Warrant 25 

Resisting Arrest; Use of Force 25 

Arrest Immunity 25 

Duties After Arrest 26 

Officer Exceeding Authority 26 

Reasonableness 26 

IX. MECHANICS OF ARREST AND 

HANDLING PRISONERS 27 

Elements Necessary for an Arrest 27 

Responsibilities in Making an Arrest 27 



A-10 



Chapter Page 

MECHANICS OF ARREST AND 
HANDLING PRISONERS Continued 

Making Initial Contact 28 

Officer's Manner in Making Arrest 28 

Use of Force 28 

Use of Firearms 28 

Considerations in Arresting Various 

Types of Persons 28 

Arrest on Street (Person Not in Car) 30 

Arrest of Subject in Automobile 30 

Arrest at Home, Public Gatherings, Office, 

or Place of Business 31 

Raid Situations 32 

Search of Person 33 

Booking or Recording Arrest 34 

Valuables and Other Personal Property 34 

Criminal Identification 35 

X. SEARCHES AND SEIZURES 36 

Fourth Amendment, United States 

Constitution 36 

Searches and Seizures Generally 36 

Persons Authorized to Issue Search Warrants 36 

Purpose of Search Warrant 36 

Explanation of Terms 37 

Obtaining a Search Warrant 37 

Finding Required by Magistrate 37 

Necessary Description 37 

Execution of Warrant by Officer Designated 37 

Command of the Warrant 38 

Deviation from Command of the Warrant. . 38 

Time of Search and Seizure 38 

Use of Force - 38 

Duties of Officer in Taking Property 38 

Time of Execution and Return of Warrant; 

Written Inventory 39 

City Ordinance Violations; Search Warrants 39 

Search Incidental to Arrest 39 

Search of Moving Vehicles 40 

Search by Consent : 41 

Consent by Owner, Landlord or 

Person in Control 41 

Situations Where There Is No Search 

Authority Required 41 

Situations 'Where There Is No Seizure 42 

Seach of the Person 42 

XI. CRIME SCENE INVESTIGATION 43 

Protection of the Crime Scene 43 

Recognition of the Evidence 44 

Collection and Preservation of the Evidence 45 
Expert Examination of Evidence . . . 48 

XII. TECHNIQUES OF ROAD BLOCKS. 50 

Source 50 

Road Block Plan . . 50 

Caution 50 

Responsibility of Calling and Cancelling 

Road Block 50 

Types of Crimes for Which Road Block 

May Be Requested 50 

Procedure for Road Block Plan 51 



A-ll 



Chapter Page 

TECHNIQUES OF ROAD BLOCKS 

Continued 

Duties at the Block Point 51 

Equipment 52 

O Conduct 53 

XIII. ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION 54 

General Procedure at All Accidents 54 

Interviewing Drivers, Witnesses, Passengers. . 55 

Examining Scene 56 

Measurements and Diagrams 56 

Speed 58 

Hit-and-Run Investigation 58 

Questioning Owner (or Driver) 59 

What Accidents Must Be Reported 

by State Law 60 

XIV. USE OF CHEMICAL TESTS IN DWI 
SITUATIONS 61 

Officers Authorized to Request Test 61 

Necessary Conditions and Reasonable 

Grounds for Request 61 

Authorized Chemical Tests 61 

Consent to Test 61 

Duties of Officer 62 

Failure to Explain Consequences 62 

Persons Authorized to Withdraw Blood 62 

Rights of the Arrested Operator 62 

Officer's Duty After Refusal 62 

Test Procedure Separate from Criminal 

Prosecution 53 

XV. LEGAL GUIDELINES FOR QUESTION- 
ING SUSPECTS 64 

Fifth Amendment, U.S. Constitution 64 

Sixth Amendment, U.S. Constitution .... 64 

K.S.A. 60-425 64 

Confessions or Admissions Generally 64 

Reason for Need To Be Voluntary 64 

Rights of Accused 55 

Duties of Accused 65 

Recommended Practice 65 

Situations Where Warning Unnecessary. ... 66 

XVI. METHODS OF INTERVIEW AND 

INTERROGATON 67 

XVII. EFFECTIVE METHODS OF TESTIFYING 
IN COURT 70 

Requisites of Effective Testimony 70 

Definition of Evidence 7Q 

Types of Evidence * ' 79 

Inadmissible Evidence (Improper Testimony ) 71 

Preparation for Testifying . . 73 

Trial \\\\ 73 

XVIII. SPECIAL PROBLEMS ....... 77 

Probable Cause " 77 

Misuse of Authority 77 

City Traffic Ordinance Violations . ." ." .' .* | ." ." 79 

SUMMARY * 81 

APPENDICES 82-100 

vii 



A- 12 



APPENDIX D 

LEAA DISSEMINATION PROJECT 67-26 



PREVENTION AND 

CONTROL OF 
MOBS AND RIOTS 




FEDERAL BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION 

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE 

JOHN EDGAR HOOVER, DIRECTOR 



A- 13 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



Preface 
Acknowledgments 



CHAPTER I 



THE LAW 1 

FEDERAL CONSTITUTION AND STATUTORY LAW ON 

DOMESTIC VIOLENCE, RIOT, AND REBELLION 2 

STATE CONSTITUTION AND LAW POLICE POWERS IN 

DOMESTIC VIOLENCE, RIOTJ AND REBELLION 11 



CHAPTER II 



AN ANALYSIS 15 

L CONTRIBUTING FACTORS LEADING TO CIVIL DISORDER 16 

H. CROWDS AND THEIR BEHAVIOR 17 

A. Nature of Crowds jg 

B. Basic Behavior Patterns in Mobs 19 

C. The People Involved 21 

D. Behavior Dynamics in Unruly Crowds 22 
HI. THE RIOT PATTERN 24 

A. The Pattern of Preparation 24 

B. The Role of Rumor 25 



VI 

A- 14 



CHAPTER in 

CHARACTERISTICS OF A RIOT 27 

I. TYPES OF VIOLENCE 28 

II. LEADERSHIP 30 

HI. TACTICS EMPLOYED 31 

CHAPTER IV 

THE POLICE ROLE IN PREVENTING RIOTS 35 

I. INTRODUCTION 36 

IL UNIFORM, EFFICIENT LAW ENFORCEMENT 37 

m. TRAINING PROGRAM FOR INDIVIDUAL OFFICERS 40 

IV. POLICE-COMMUNITY RELATIONS 41 

A. Internal Organization 42 

B. Training Programs 43 

C. Liaison with the Community 43 

D. Complaint Procedures 44 

E. Public Relations and Liaison with News Media 45 

F. School Programs and Activities 46 

G. Liaison with City and County Officials and Agencies 46 
H. Support Programs 46 

CHAPTER V 

CROWD AND DEMONSTRATION CONTROL 47 

L CROWD CONTROL 48 

A. Specific Problems 50 

B. Crowd Control Plan 51 

IL CONTROL OF DEMONSTRATIONS 52 

A. Lawful Demonstrations 53 

B. Unlawful Acts by Demonstrators 55 



Vll 
A- 15 



CHAPTER VI 

PLANNING AND ORGANIZING FOR RIOT CONTROL OPERATIONS 59 

I. INTRODUCTION 60 

EL INTELLIGENCE PLANNING 60 

A. Sources of Intelligence 60 

B. Intelligence Evaluation 61 

C. Supplimental Information 61 
EL LOGISTICS PLANNING 62 

A. Transportation 62 

B. Emergency Facilities 62 

C. Field Locations and Services 62 

D. Communications 63 

E. Clothing and Equipment 63 

F. Operational Equipment 63 

G. Chemicals 64 
IV. OPERATIONS PLANNING 65 

A. Aircraft 66 

B. Press Relations 66 

C. Liaison 67 

D. Manpower 67 

E. Chain of Command 67 

F. Proclamations 68 

G. Command Posts 68 
V. ORGANIZATION AND TRAINING 68 

A. Organization 68 

B. Training 70 
VI. THE CITY PLAN 71 

A. Chain of Command 72 



via 
A-16 



B. Command Posts 72 

C. Personnel 72 

D. Communications 73 

E. Supplies and Equipment 73 

F. Control of Business 73 

G. Apprehension, Identification, and Detention 74 
H. Liaison 74 

I. Practical Considerations 74 
VH. ASSISTANCE FROM OTHER MUNICIPAL, COUNTY, AND 

STATE RESOURCES 76 

VHL FEDERAL AID 78 

CHAPTER VII 

POLICE OPERATIONS DURING A RIOT 81 

I. INTRODUCTION 82 

II. RIOT CONTROL PRINCIPLES 82 

A. Principle of the Objective 82 

B. Principle of the Offensive 82 

C. Principle of Mass 83 

D. Principle of Economy of Force 83 

E. Principle of Maneuver 83 

F. Principle of Unity of Command 83 

G. Principle of Security 83 
H. Principle of Surprise 84 

I. Principle of Simplicity 84 

HI. CONTAINING AND ISOLATING THE AREA 84 

A. Patrols 84 

B. Roadblocks and Barricades 85 



IX 
A-17 



C. Search and Seizure 85 

D. Curfews 85 

E. Police Security Measures 86 
IV. QUELLING THE RIOT 86 

A. Types of Riots 86 

B. Show of Force 87 

C. Remove Leaders 87 

D. Use of Photography 88 

E. Follow-up Measures 88 
V. EMPLOYMENT AND APPLICATION OF FORCE 89 

A. Firearms 89 

B. Bayonets 90 

C. Fire Hoses 90 

D. Dogs 90 

E. Horses 91 

F. Batons 91 

G. Chemical Agents 91 
VL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT 92 

VH. RIOT CONTROL FORMATIONS 92 

A. Squad 93 

B. Platoon 93 

C. Formations 93 

D. Vehicles 94 
VIE. COUNTERMEASURE OPERATIONS 94 

A. Downtown 94 

B. Residential Areas 95 

C. Barricades 95 



x 

A-18 



D. Looting 95 

E. Vital Buildings 95 

F. Teamwork 95 

G. Post Riot Control 96 

CHAPTER VHI 



NATIONAL GUARD ASSISTANCE TO LOCAL AUTHORITIES 97 

INTRODUCTION 98 

PLANNING 93 

APPLICATION FOR STATE AID 10 i 

NATIONAL GUARD UNITS 10 2 

RELEASE OF NATIONAL GUARD 103 

ndix 104 



XI 
A-19 



APPENDIX E 
LEAA GRANT 035 

Similar manuals have been pro- 
duced under this grant for pro- 
secuting attorney training in 
Minnesota, Ohio, Illinois and 
Michigan. 



the law of 

arrest;! search and 

seizure in Iowa 




National District 
Attorneys Association 

211 EAST CHICAGO AVENU E / CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 

A-21 



CONTENTS 

CHAPTER I. 

SEARCHES WITHOUT WARRANT PAGE 

A. SEARCH INCIDENT TO ARREST 2 

SCOPE OF SEARCH 3 

TIMELINESS OF SEARCH 5 

WHAT MAY BE SEIZED 8 

VALID ARREST 14 

B. SEARCH OF VEHICLES 25 

THE CARROLL RULE 34 

SEARCH WARRANTS 36 

C. CONSENT SEARCHES 37 

D. EMERGENCY SEARCHES 43 

CHAPTER H. 
SEARCHES UNDER WARRANT 

GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS 45 

REQUISITES OF A VALID SEARCH WARRANT 

A. ISSUANCE OF THE WARRANT 47 

B. OBJECTS FOR WHICH SEARCH WARRANTS 

MAY BE ISSUED 49 

C. PROBABLE CAUSE 50 

D. THE OATH OR AFFIRMATION 57 

E. THE DESCRIPTION 59 

EXECUTING THE WARRANT. 62 

CHAPTER HI. 
SPECIAL PROBLEMS 



A. MATERIAL WITHIN THE BODY 66 

B. DERIVATIVE USE OF ILLEGAL SEIZURE: FRUITS . . 71 

C. THE "SILVER PLATTER" RULE 72 

D. ADMINISTRATIVE SEARCHES 72 

E. WIRETAPPING AND EAVESDROPPING 75 

F. ENTRAPMENT 83 

G. PROCEDURAL ASPECTS 84 

CONCLUSION 86 

A- 22 



APPENDIX F 
LEAA GRANT 022 



THE POLICE HELICOPTER 
PATROL TEAM 



TRAINING MANUAL 
AND FLIGHT SYLLABUS 



LOS ANGELES COUNTY SHERIFF'S DEPARTMENT 
PETER J. PITCHESS, SHERIFF 
1968 



A- 23